Orphans' needs are barely identified, barely acknowledged, and barely treated notably in France. Yet, parental loss might generate specific needs associated with cognitive, relational/behavioral, and emotional difficulties. In turn, such difficulties are likely to give rise to lower academic achievement.
In this theoretical paper, the authors argue that, due to the detrimental impact of parental loss on academic achievement, orphaned students should be considered as students with special educational needs. This is important to provide appropriate educational responses consistent with inclusive education. The present paper aims to identify different specific needs of orphaned children, as a way to limit neglect of orphans. The authors discuss various ways to reduce the risks of neglecting orphans in French schools by using Bronfenbrenner's ecological development model and propose avenues for relevant pedagogical responses.