Child Abuse and Neglect

Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional mistreatment, sexual abuse, and neglect of a child’s basic needs, which results in actual or potential harm to a child’s physical, mental, and emotional health. Exploitation of children is also a form of abuse and includes trafficking for sexual or economic purposes, and recruitment of children into armed forces.

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End Violence Against Children,

This End Violence Against Children briefing paper summarises research showing reductions in the approval and use of corporal punishment in some countries which have reformed their laws to prohibit all corporal punishment.

World Health Organization (WHO),

These WHO guidelines provides evidence-based recommendations on parenting interventions for parents and caregivers of children aged 0–17 years that are designed to reduce child maltreatment and harsh parenting, enhance the parent–child relationship, and prevent poor mental health among parents and emotional and behavioural problems among children.

World Health Organization (WHO),

This web annex forms part of the WHO guidelines on parenting interventions to prevent maltreatment and enhance parent–child relationships with children aged 0–17 years. As such, it should only ever be read in conjunction with the main guideline document that sets out in detail how the methodology in the WHO handbook for guideline development was applied here, along with the development process and the recommendations themselves.

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies,

This paper attempts to highlight some of the key issues regarding child labour and education in emergencies.

Scott L. Moeschberger, BreeAnna White,

This chapter in the book, "Psychological Perspectives on Understanding and Addressing Violence Against Children: Towards Building Cultures of Peace", explores how violence impacts children in various types of alternative care from larger scale institutions such as orphanages to family-based care models like foster care. The book explores the topic from a global perspective.

World Health Organization,

This World Health Organization report, "What works to prevent online violence against children", presents ways to address the growing worldwide concern of keeping children safe online, with a specific focus on two forms of online violence: child sexual abuse including grooming and sexual image abuse; and cyber aggression and harassment in the form of cyberbullying, cyberstalking, hacking and identity theft. The report recommends implementing school-based educational programmes that have multiple sessions, promote interaction among youth and engage parents.


Disrupting Harm in South Africa is the 13th in a series of reports which shares the findings of children’s perceptions of and participation in various online practices, as well as exposes their experiences of online child sexual exploitation and abuse in South Africa.

Kathryn L. Humphreys, Lucy S. King, Katherine L. Guyon-Harris, Charles H. Zeanah,

This study examined longitudinal data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care following exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation. The findings indicate that early investment in family care as an alternative to institutional care leads to sustained gains in cognitive ability.

Jérôme Clerca, Kamilla Khamzina, Caroline Desombre,

In this theoretical paper, the authors argue that, due to the detrimental impact of parental loss on academic achievement in France, orphaned students should be considered as students with special educational needs. This is important to provide appropriate educational responses consistent with inclusive education.

Charles H. Zeanah, Lucy S. King,

This report reviewed evidence for the effects of psychosocial neglect on development derived from studies of young children raised in U.S. institutions. In these caregiving environments, children are physically safe and receive instrumental care, but the social, emotional, and cognitive components of caregiving are impoverished. The damaging and often lasting effects of these caregiving environments on young children's development underscore that psychosocial neglect should be considered as dangerous to child well-being as physical maltreatment.