Child Exploitation

Child trafficking is a form of child abuse. It is the exploitation of children for economic or sexual purposes, and includes the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of a child for exploitation. Children may be sold, illegally adopted, forced into early marriage, recruited into the armed forces, pushed into prostitution, or trafficked to work in mines, factories, or homes. In such environments they are exposed to extreme forms of abuse and are denied access to basic services and the meeting of their fundamental human rights. Trafficked children often lack basic legal status and support networks, making their condition virtually "invisible." 

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Better Care Network,

Comprised of 12 videos and accompanying discussion guides, this video series features the learning from practitioners working across a range of care-related programs and practices in Cambodia.

Better Care Network,

In this video, Sreyna and Chenda, two practitioners from Hagar Cambodia, discuss their learning regarding the impact of the care setting on child rehabilitation.

Lucie Shuker & Jenny Pearce - Child & Family Social Work,

Using evidence from the evaluation of specialist foster care provision and a child sexual exploitation (CSE) training course for foster carers, this paper [from the Child & Family Social Work special issue on teenagers in foster care] considers how training might be used to widen the pool of potential foster carers for children affected by CSE and identifies qualities displayed by effective carers.

Charles H Zeanah, Nicole G Wilke, Carole Shauffer, Tamsen Rochat, Amanda H Howard, Mary Dozier - The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health,

While much of the published research on orphanage volunteering has focused on the effects of the practice on volunteers, the authors of this comment paper from the Lancet argue that there is also substantial reason for concern about the harm this practice might have on the children—especially in young children (ie, ≤5 years)—being raised in these settings.

Better Care Network,

This country care review includes the care-related Concluding Observations adopted by the Committee on the Rights of the Child.

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action,

This report examines the main elements of child abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence (nature of the act; perpetrator relationship to the child; motivation or intent; and outcomes) in ways that recognise the overlap and highlight the distinctions between each type of maltreatment. 

U.S. State Department,

The U.S. State Department Trafficking in Persons Report sheds light on the practices of modern slavery around the world and highlights specific steps governments can take to protect victims of human trafficking, prevent trafficking crimes, and prosecute traffickers in the United States and around the world. The report includes several references to the links between orphanages and trafficking in relation to Nepal, Nigeria, Cambodia, Haiti, Sri Lanka, Moldova, and other countries.

Johanna K. P. Greeson, Daniel Treglia, Debra Schilling Wolfe, Sarah Wasch, Richard J. Gelles - Child Abuse & Neglect,

The aims of this study were (1) to estimate child welfare characteristics in a sample of homeless young people in the US who engaged in commercial sex (CS); and (2) to compare young people who were sex trafficked (ST) to those who engaged in some other form of CS.

ECPAT International,

This thematic paper from ECPAT's Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism highlights the risks of sexual exploitation of children associated with volunteering and voluntourism, including orphanage voluntourism.

Gemma McKibbin & Cathy Humphreys - Child Abuse Review,

As part of a broader action research project aiming to prevent both harmful sexual behaviour carried out by children and young people and child sexual exploitation (CSE) in out‐of‐home care, four focus groups were undertaken with 17 workers at three Victorian residential houses in 2017.