The current chapter comprises the first-time inclusion of Israel’s child protection system in a comparative survey of such systems worldwide. Following the introduction, the chapter describes the historical development of social services and child protection in Israel, relevant governmental commissions, and the prevention-oriented ‘360 Degrees – Israeli National Program for Children and Youth at Risk’. The child protection legislative framework for child maltreatment, including the ‘Youth (Care and Supervision) Law’, and the ‘Mandatory Reporting Law’ are additional topics addressed herein. Likewise reviewed are the topics of substantiations and responses, ‘Planning, Intervention and Evaluation Committees’, out-of-home placements and adoption. A critical overview highlighting current pressing challenges facing the system culminates the chapter; followed by a conclusions section comprising a summary and recommendations.