In 2011/12 a comprehensive Review was undertaken of Kenya’s Social Protection Sector. This Review follows up on progress made since the previous one. The Review finds that the Government of Kenya has made very significant progress in developing its national social protection system in recent years. The expansion of schemes has been impressive and there has been continuing progress in strengthening programme delivery. Without doubt, there has been a significant increase in political commitment to social protection. Despite only commencing in 2004, Kenya now invests more in social protection than many richer middle-income countries and is the leading investor in the region. Furthermore, Kenya is an excellent example of the benefits that can be gained from a strong partnership between international agencies and national governments. Nonetheless, over time the Government has increasingly become the main driver in determining social protection policy. Further investment in social protection will be necessary if Kenya is to continue to build its economy and a more cohesive society, in line with Vision 2030. History has shown that all successful economies require significant levels of investment in social protection and, if Kenya can build on its current progress and introduce a comprehensive lifecycle social protection system – in line with the National Social Protection Policy – it should benefit from significant economic, social and political rewards.