EveryChild is an international development charity working in 17 countries with a strategic focus on children without parental care. This document outlines EveryChild’s approach to the growing problem of children without parental care by defining key concepts, analysing the nature and extent of the problem, exploring factors which place children at risk of losing parental care, and examining the impact of a loss of parental care on children’s rights. It also provides principles for good practice in trying to reduce the number of children without parental care, and protect girls and boys who are already without their mothers and fathers. The document is primarily intended for internal use, though it is hoped that it will also be of relevance to others working in this field. The document was developed from consultations with over 400 children, a literature review, interviews with experts, and knowledge gained from EveryChild’s country programmes.