Children in foster care due to parental substance use disorder are at high risk for delayed permanency. Understudied is the effect of foster care factors on these children’s exits from care. This study analyzed 10 years of federal child welfare data to understand the effect of foster care placement, provider, and support factors for this vulnerable group. Results revealed that several foster care variables influenced time to, and likelihood of, permanency for children with substance-related removals. Foster care setting, foster parent age and race, and several types of federal supports affected permanency trajectories. Children in homes receiving more federal supports were less likely to achieve permanency, suggesting the insufficiency of these supports to counteract the effects of socioeconomic risk on permanency.