A large number of children worldwide live in institutions and their number is increasing every day. It is very unfortunate that a large number of children live in institutions while they are supposed to be with their parents and enjoying their love and affection and all other needs for their overall healthy growth and development. A number of factors are responsible for being thrust into institutional care and they include poverty, broken homes and remarriage, irresponsible behaviour of parents, parents’ dependence on substance, lack of support from extended family members during crisis, absence of parents on account of death, abandonment by parents and children in conflict with the law and so on. The main focus of the chapter is to define the institutions, their objectives and the nature of services rendered. Further, the chapter highlights the reasons for taking shelter in institutions, the profile of children and their perception of the nature of support services. The perception of the parents/guardians is also captured in the discourse. The chapter also discusses the safety measures and adversities experienced by the children and the reasons thereof. Finally, the chapter discusses the nature of crimes committed by juvenile delinquents, its magnitude, causes behind juvenile delinquency and preventive measures, based on first-hand experience and how to improve the quality of care and support services, in addition to discussing about legislative and social measures for the protection of the rights of children under institutional care in the light of the UN Convention on the Rights of The Child 1989.