This section highlights academic and institutional literature, reports, and other resources focused on international volunteering, tourism, and donations in residential care centres. For academic resources on international volunteering more generally, please visit, and For resources on residential care, please consult the BCN library. 

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ReThink Orphanages Australia and the ACFID Child Rights Community of Practice,

This briefing note was developed by ReThink Orphanages Australia and the ACFID Child Rights Community of Practice to assist entities in Australia and abroad who have orphanages in their supply chains and/or operations to understand the implications of Australia’s Modern Slavery Act 2018. 

Eds. Joseph M Cheer, Leigh Mathews, Kathryn E. van Doore, Karen Flanagan,

This book highlights exploratory research that examines the links between modern slavery practices and orphanage tourism. It was edited by Joseph M Cheer of Wakayama University, Leigh Mathews of ALTO Consulting, Kate van Doore of Griffith University, and Karen Flanagan of Save the Children Australia.

Up/Root Podcast,

This episode of the podcast Up/Root features interviews with Stephen Ucembe and Ruth Wacuka who both grew up in "orphanages," despite having parents. They share what it was like to grow up in an institution and what they are doing to help end orphanage tourism - and how listeners can join them in their pursuit of justice for families and children.

The International Forum for Volunteering in Development,

The International Forum for Volunteering in Development (Forum) has developed The Global Standard for Volunteering for Development (the Global Standard) to help organisations understand and deliver Responsible and Impactful Volunteering, and to encourage learning and continuous improvement in development projects involving volunteers. The Global Standard offers key actions and indicators for each of the four themes - Designing and Delivering Projects, Duty of Care, Managing Volunteers, and Measuring Impact - including several indicators related to orphanage volunteering.

Government of the United Kingdom,

On 18 October 2019, the UK Government updated its guidance on gap years and volunteering overseas to include an advisory on volunteering at and visiting orphanages abroad. 

Australian Border Force ,

This guidance, which was developed for businesses and other organisations required to report under Australia's Modern Slavery Act 2018, offers a case study on orphanage trafficking as well as information on orphanage trafficking as a form of modern slavery and how entities can identify it in their operations and supply chains.


This report from Lumos defines the global problem of institutionalization of children - including the factors that drive it and the harmful impacts it has on children's physical and cognitive development - and proposes global solutions in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.

ReThink Orphanages Australia,

The Partner Due Diligence Assessment Tool was developed specifically for charities seeking to partner with overseas organisations who provide residential care services for children. It is designed to help you determine whether your partner or prospective partner is operating in accordance with standard notions of good practice and international norms.

ReThink Orphanages Australia & ACFID Child Rights Community of Practice,

This guidance note was developed by ReThink Orphanages Australia and the ACFID Child Rights Community of Practice to assist charities with overseas activities involving residential care for children in their efforts to comply with the Australian Charities and Not for Profit Commission (ACNC)’s External Conduct Standards (ECS).


This video from Homecoming tells the fictional story of Bernard, a boy separated from his family and placed in an institution, and explains some of the harms of institutionalization on children.