This section highlights academic and institutional literature, reports, and other resources focused on international volunteering, tourism, and donations in residential care centres. For academic resources on international volunteering more generally, please visit, and For resources on residential care, please consult the BCN library. 

Displaying 1 - 10 of 116

Transforming Children's Care Collaborative,

This thematic brief contains guidance on key policy measures and concrete steps that may assist with the development and implementation of a whole-of-government strategy to eliminate orphanage tourism and voluntourism and to combat orphanage trafficking. It includes recommendations relevant to volunteer-sending and volunteer-receiving countries. In addition, it contains practical examples of effective measures from a diverse range of countries sending and receiving volunteers.

Rebecca Nhep, Dr Kate van Doore,

This study was conducted as a part of a multi-stage, multi-country project designed to enhance the identification, prosecution, and prevention of orphanage trafficking crimes. It was the second of four stages to be conducted in Cambodia as one of three jurisdictions included in the study.

UNICEF, Eurochild,

These presentations from UNICEF and Eurochild were delivered during the June 25 2021 workshop of the Care Measurement Task Force. The focus of the workshop was the development of the residential care toolkit (led by UNICEF) and care measurement in the EU region.

Amanda R. Hiles Howard, Megan Roberts, Jacqueline N. Gustafson & Nicole Gilbertson Wilke - Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment,

The goal of the present study was to provide data on pre-trip preparation, in-country activities, and how these impacted volunteer perceptions of preparation and trip satisfaction for volunteers working with vulnerable children, including those in residential care (ex. orphanages).

Amanda Miller & Harriot Beazley - Children's Geographies,

This paper examines the lived experiences of children who interacted with tourists in a performance-based orphanage in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Rebecca Nhep, Kate van Doore,

This report seeks to examine Uganda’s legal and policy framework to identify the relevant offences and mechanisms that could contribute towards the development of a prosecutorial strategy for orphanage trafficking in Uganda.

Kate van Doore, Rebecca Nhep,

This study assesses and maps the legal, policy and procedural frameworks in both domestic and international law across Nepal, Uganda and Cambodia, where orphanage trafficking continues to undermine domestic efforts to stem the overuse of institutionalisation of children.

Rebecca Nhep, Kate van Doore,

Orphanage trafficking occurs at the nexus of criminal law (human trafficking offences) and child protection regulation. This report examines the intersection of these two legal systems for the purpose of developing a strategy to identify and prosecute orphanage trafficking.

Kate van Doore, Rebecca Nhep,

This study examines Nepal’s compliance with international legal obligations, its child protection and anti-trafficking laws, and its criminal and procedural laws that regulate illegal transfer and trafficking of children. The study also raises issues regarding victim identification, inspection of child care homes and complaint mechanisms.

Martin Punaks and Samjyor Lama - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This article compares and contrasts two humanitarian emergencies and their impact on Nepal: these are the Nepal earthquake in 2015 and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.