This section highlights academic and institutional literature, reports, and other resources focused on international volunteering, tourism, and donations in residential care centres. For academic resources on international volunteering more generally, please visit, and For resources on residential care, please consult the BCN library. 

Displaying 1 - 10 of 110

UNICEF, Eurochild,

These presentations from UNICEF and Eurochild were delivered during the June 25 2021 workshop of the Care Measurement Task Force. The focus of the workshop was the development of the residential care toolkit (led by UNICEF) and care measurement in the EU region.

Amanda R. Hiles Howard, Megan Roberts, Jacqueline N. Gustafson & Nicole Gilbertson Wilke - Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment,

The goal of the present study was to provide data on pre-trip preparation, in-country activities, and how these impacted volunteer perceptions of preparation and trip satisfaction for volunteers working with vulnerable children, including those in residential care (ex. orphanages).

Amanda Miller & Harriot Beazley - Children's Geographies,

This paper examines the lived experiences of children who interacted with tourists in a performance-based orphanage in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Martin Punaks and Samjyor Lama - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This article compares and contrasts two humanitarian emergencies and their impact on Nepal: these are the Nepal earthquake in 2015 and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

Esther Bott - Annals of Tourism Research,

This article draws on original empirical data to explore the narratives of young Nepali adults who lived in Kathmandu orphanages as children. Through these narratives, the article explores the diverse complexities of the residents' experiences of volunteer tourism and NGO ‘rescue’, and the shortcomings of recent ‘neoabolitionist’ frameworks.

Marinus van IJzendoorn,

This presentation - delivered by Marinus van IJzendoorn at a 18 November 2020 meeting of the Evidence for Impact Working Group, a working group of the recently launched Transforming Children's Care Global Collaborative Platform - presents evidence of the harmful impacts of institutionalization on children, demonstrates some of the benefits of deinstitutionalization for getting children back on track, and raises questions about gap-year volunteers working in orphanages.

Kathryn E. van Doore - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This article traces the evolution of the recognition of orphanage trafficking broadly, and then focusses on recommendations made by the Australian government following the release of its 2017 Hidden in Plain Sight Report.

Better Care Network and ReThink Orphanages,

This report lays out the results of a preliminary mapping exercise to document the ways in which the United States supports and perpetuates overseas orphanages. It is based on: an analysis of existing data; a literature review of U.S government publications and investments; a review of non-profit organizations and foundation activities; an analysis of key supply chains and stakeholders; and the identification of existing data gaps.

Ruth Taylor, Blandine Champagneur, and Frank Seidel - ReThink Orphanages European Hub,

Significant anecdotal evidence suggests that other countries across Europe also make a considerable contribution to the supply chain of people, money and resources that continue to sustain and foster the orphanage industry worldwide. This report seeks to map the contribution of the three countries in Europe with the largest volunteer travel markets: The United Kingdom, Germany and France.

ECPAT International,

This briefing paper has been compiled using information included in the Out of the Shadows Index - which measures a country’s response to child sexual exploitation and abuse - and the ECPAT Country Overview for Nepal. The brief highlights the risk of sexual exploitation resulting from voluntourism practices, including volunteering in or visiting orphanages.