This section highlights academic and institutional literature, reports, and other resources focused on international volunteering, tourism, and donations in residential care centres. For academic resources on international volunteering more generally, please visit, and For resources on residential care, please consult the BCN library. 

Displaying 1 - 10 of 77

Charles H Zeanah, Nicole G Wilke, Carole Shauffer, Tamsen Rochat, Amanda H Howard, Mary Dozier - The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health,

While much of the published research on orphanage volunteering has focused on the effects of the practice on volunteers, the authors of this comment paper from the Lancet argue that there is also substantial reason for concern about the harm this practice might have on the children—especially in young children (ie, ≤5 years)—being raised in these settings.

Shannon Senefeld, Philip Goldman and Anne Smith - Health Progress,

In this piece for Health Progress, the Journal of the Catholic Health Association of the United States, Shannon Senefeld, Philip Goldman and Anne Smith explain why many aid groups are working to end the use of orphanages in favor of family-based care and describe the work of the Changing the Way We Care initiative which seeks to "mobilize other likeminded organizations, raise awareness, promote new policies and encourage well-meaning donors to shift their support away from orphanages and toward families."

U.S. State Department,

The U.S. State Department Trafficking in Persons Report sheds light on the practices of modern slavery around the world and highlights specific steps governments can take to protect victims of human trafficking, prevent trafficking crimes, and prosecute traffickers in the United States and around the world. The report includes several references to the links between orphanages and trafficking in relation to Nepal, Nigeria, Cambodia, Haiti, Sri Lanka, Moldova, and other countries.

Christian Alliance for Orphans (CAFO),

This webinar was presented by the Christian Alliance for Orphans (CAFO) to offer guidance on transitioning donors away from funding orphanages and toward supporting family strengthening and family-based care.

ECPAT International,

This thematic paper from ECPAT's Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism highlights the risks of sexual exploitation of children associated with volunteering and voluntourism, including orphanage voluntourism.

Comhlámh and the Volunteering and Orphanages Working Group (OWG),

This report from Comhlámh and the Volunteering and Orphanages Working Group (OWG) explores the negative impacts of institutionalization on children and the negative impacts of volunteering in orphanages, including the proliferation of orphanages and perpetuation of family separation to satisfy volunteer demands, highlighting recommendations for addressing this issue.

Christian Alliance for Orphans (CAFO),

CAFO engaged with markempa to study how OVC-serving organizations inspired donors to give toward a new model of family-based care. In this guide, you’ll learn the five steps to help transition your donors to improve fundraising outcomes and create the financial capacity to provide better care for vulnerable children and families.

Samantha Lyneham and Lachlan Facchini - Australian Institute of Criminology,

This paper summarises the processes by which children become vulnerable to sexual exploitation and related harms within or facilitated by orphanages.

Kristen Cheney & Stephen Ucembe - Disadvantaged Childhoods and Humanitarian Intervention,

This chapter explicates the concept of the orphan industrial complex to argue that persistent narratives of “orphan rescue” not only commodify orphans and orphanhood itself but—counter to their stated goal—can actually spur the “production” of “orphans,” resulting in child exploitation and trafficking.

Kwabena Frimpong-Manso, Antoine Deliege, Theresa Wilson and Yvonne Norman - Scottish Journal of Residential Child Care,

The paper describes the findings of a geographical mapping and analysis of residential care facilities in four regions of Ghana.