The article deals with the problem of socialization of orphan children in the process of relationships between the individual and a society based on the implementation of existing individual features in social learning, self-knowledge and self-realization, that provides in turn social knowledge, social skills and social experience of the individual. The authors explains the importance of transition from education of children in residential care to a family-based living arrangement. Emphasis is placed on the difficulties faced by the adopted child studying in a General education organization that is the fear of failure and the inability to be in contact with adults, fears not to be accepted in a new team. Education and training of schoolchildren in substitute families are often accompanied by stress, where the reason for it is a matter of changing the lifestyle of a child and parents, changing the atmosphere of family relations as well as excessive stress on a child in modern school. Substitute parents do not have enough practical skills to help apply in difficult situations and take quick, thoughtful measures to correct the situation. To study this problem a program aimed at providing psychological and pedagogical work of the school with substitute, foster and guardian families on the socialization of orphans was presented. The main task of psychological and pedagogical work with a foster child is its successful integration into the teaching staff, which will contribute to its better entry into society.