Malaysia

List of Organisations

demographic_data

Demographic Data

Add New Data Explore Data
31.45 million
Total Population
World Bank 2019
29%
Population Under 18
 
Department of Statistics Malaysia 2019
4.6
People
Mean Household Size
IPUMS 2000
13.2%
Prevalence of Female-Headed Households
 
HIS/BA 2014
33.1%
Prevalence of Child-Headed Households
 
HIS/BA2014
Upper Middle-Income Country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank 2019
5.6%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
World Bank 2018
41.1
GINI Coefficient
World Bank 2015
0.81
Human Development Index
HDI 2020

Children at Risk of Separation

Add New Data Explore Data
18.2%
Children Living Below Poverty Line
 
HIS/BA 2014
Children Engaged in Child Labor
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Nik Ahmad, Marhanum, Ashgar & Azizah 2016
i
The study consulted a total of 454 working children in four states in Malaysia and found that more than half (63%) of the children had been emotionally abused and around 10% had been sexually abused in the workplace.
Children with Disabilities
196,846
Children
Department of Social Welfare 2019
i
16,477: Visually & hearing impaired 166,535: Physical & learning disabilities 2,018: Speech & mental 11,816: Others UNICEF SitAn (2020) however, indicated that based on current population estimates aged 0 - 14 years, this equates to a population of around 440,000 children with disabilities in Malaysia (five per cent of 9,000,000). In a separate UNICEF study, 73.5% of respondents thought children with disabilities should be institutionalised. Financial assistance is also provided for students with disabilities at local higher learning institutions on a full time or part time basis, including long distance programmes. The students receive up to RM5,000 per year or RM20,000 for the whole duration of studies. In addition, DSW also provides assistive devices to children with disabilities through the Financial Assistance for Artificial Aids and Assistive Devices scheme. In order to enable early intervention, MOH carries out growth and developmental assessment for early detection of disabilities among children aged 0 - 6 years at 2,881 health clinics and community clinics as of 2018. As of December 2018, there were 3,194 physiotherapists and 2,772 occupational therapists to provide early intervention and rehabilitative services for children with special needs. In 2018, there were 3,338 CBR trained workers (supervisors and workers) to undertake rehabilitation programmes at the CBR centres, make home visits and facilitate parental involvement.
12%
Left Behind Children (Migration)
 
UNICEF 2020
i
Out of 3,477,000
Ethnic Minority Children
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF SitAN 2020
i
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), Indigenous World 2019 - estimated indigenous persons represented 13.8% of the country’s population (2017). The indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysia, known as Orang Asli, live predominantly in rural areas and represent around 0.7% of the population of Peninsular Malaysia. The indigenous peoples of Sarawak (Dayak and/or Orang Ulu) comprise 70.5% of the population and the 39 different indigenous groups of Sabah (Anak Negeri) make up 58.6% of the population there. Remain as one of the groups of children that do not enjoy the benefits of these gains, who are being left behind their peers, and who are rendered invisible or marginalised through lack of legal status or the application of discriminatory laws, exclusion from data collection systems, social stigmatisation and by virtue of policy vacuums, which all impact on their ability to access essential services and realise their rights.
Children Affected by HIV (10 - 19 yrs old)
2,500
Children
UNAIDS 2019
i
Children orphaned by AIDS will be placed by Department of Social Welfare in FBC or care institutions for care and protection.
Children Affected by HIV (0 - 14 yrs old)
500
Children
UNAIDS 2019
i
Children orphaned by AIDS will be placed by Department of Social Welfare in FBC or care institutions for care and protection.
Children Experiencing Violence
6,274
Children
Department of Social Welfare 2019
Children in Conflict with the Law
6,813
Children
Ministry of Home Affairs 2019
i
18 years of age who have been arrested by the police due to an alleged conflict with the law. Of which, 1,325 found guilty of an offence by a court and have been sentenced to detention. In addition, 4,665 are under probation order (Department of Social Welfare, 2019).
Children on the Move (Asylum-seekers)
8,907
Children
UNHCR Global Trends 2020
Children on the Move (Refugees)
36,926
Children
UNHCR Global Trends 2020
Stateless/Undocumented Children
290,000
Children
UNICEF SitAn 2020
i
In 2016, the former home minister of Malaysia, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi estimated that there are around 290,000 stateless children in the country. According to a paper titled, ‘Protecting the Children’s Right to Nationality in Malaysia: An Appraisal’, published by the Human Resource Management Academic Research Society (HRMARS), there are several factors leading to the creation of stateless children in Malaysia – failure of marriage registration by their parents, unregistered births, adopted or abandoned children, and children of refugees and undocumented migrants.
6%
Child Marriage
 
UNICEF 2018, End of Childhood Index Rankings 2019
i
Aged 15-19 (girls). Data refer to the most recent year available during the period 2005-2012. Though SUHAKAM Annual report 2018 indicated, 15,000 marriages involving children over the past decade, with Muslim girls allowed to marry before age of 16 with permission from a Syariah court judge.
Substance Abuse
2,556
Children
National Anti-drugs Agency (NADA) 2020
i
Age 13 -18. Community-based programmes are also available where children are put under supervision and treated as outpatient clients. In 2018, 130 children (below 18 years) have benefitted from the Cure & Care Clinics, whereas 1,132 children have benefitted from community-based programmes as outpatient clients. In 2018, MOH also introduced One Stop Centres for Addiction in designated clinics to provide a holistic and integrated treatment for alcohol and substance abuse (KPWKM, 2nd to 5th Periodic Reports 2008-2018).
Sexual Abuse
22,134
Children
UNICEF SitAn 2020
i
MWCFD shared between 2010 and May 2017, 22,134 children were reported to be sexually abused, while 13,272 children were reported to have been raped. The data also reported 6,014 cases of children being sexually molested and 796 cases of incest.
Children in Need of Care and Protection
6,382
Children
Department of Social Welfare 2019
UASC Detained in Immigration Depots
1,819
Children
Ministry of Home Affairs 2019

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

Add New Data Explore Data
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Family-Based Alternative Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Foster Care
- - Foster Families/Foster Parents
591 Children
i
Formal/regulated foster care by government; known as Anak Pelihara. The Court for Children may place a child in custody of a foster parent for 2 years or until the child reaches 18 years old (whichever is shorter) if the child has no parent or guardian or has been abandoned. KPWKM Second to Fifth Periodic Report 2008-2018 indicated provision provided for children separated due to their parents being detained or imprisoned upon conviction of criminal or drug offences, the DSW also provides financial assistance to the foster family at RM250 per child. DSW will monitor the progress and needs of the child and family from time to time. No other provisions in any statute which provide for the procedure or regulations pertaining to foster care system in Malaysia.
Department of Social Welfare 2019
Formal Kinship Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
i
According to Child Act No. 611, 2001 - A Protector may place the child in the custody of a relative until the child reaches 18 years old or for any shorter period (Sections 35, 37).
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Foster Care (UASC)
- - Families/Parents
30 Children
i
Supported to live independently in group homes, or with foster families of the same ethnic and linguistic background. Foster families are identified via referrals from community networks, pre-vetted by SUKA Society and given a small amount of financial support as well as comprehensive case management support. Case managers work to ensure that each UASC is able to access fundamental services and supports him or her towards achieving case resolution
Save the Children 2017
Total Residential Care
- - Settings
50,000 Children
i
An estimated 13,700 children are living in orphanages and institutions in the country, according to government statistics. This number does not take into account those living in unregistered institutions. The number of these institutions may exceed 1,000, potentially housing 50,000 children.
Malaysia Kini 2019
Larger Institutions
- - Settings
1,510 Children
i
15 state-run residential care; known as Rumah Kanak-Kanak
Department of Social Welfare 2021
Small Group Homes
- - Settings
148 Children
i
9 state-run residential care; known as Rumah Tunas Harapan
Department of Social Welfare 2019
Number of Children in Conflict with the Law
- - Settings
979 Children
i
State-run residential care; known as i) Asrama Akhlak for children in rehabilitation to children involved in crime (probation order) and uncontrolled (beyond parental control); ii) Rumah Tunas Bakti for children involved in crimes; iii) Taman Seri Puteri for children protection and rehabilitation to children who are exposed to moral danger.
Department of Social Welfare 2019

adoption

NO DATA AVAIABLE
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
6,682
children
Domestic Adoption
Ministry of Home Affairs 2019
i
*separate regulation for East Malaysia: The registration of adoption in Sabah is governed by the Adoption Ordinance 1960 (Sabah No.23 of 1960), Sabah Syariah Court Enactment 2004 and the Rules of the Sabah Syariah Court (Adoption Practices and Procedures) 2006 whereas in Sarawak is governed by the Adoption Ordinance 1958 (Sarawak Cap.91). 1,799 Application for Registration of Adoption through the National Registration Department of Malaysia (JPN) and Application for Legal Adoption through the Court by State, 2019.
-1
children
Inter-country Adoption
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Inter-country adoption is not permitted under the Adoption Act of 1952 (revised January, 2013).
NO DATA AVAIABLE
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Progress Indicators

Add New Data Explore Data
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
RM 79.67 million
Social Welfare Spending
Department of Social Welfare 2019
i
In 2016, UNICEF’s proposal “Develop an Integrated Planning, Budgeting, Monitoring and Reporting Model for Child-focused Outcomes in Malaysia” was approved by Malaysia and launched. Following a series of consultations, a Technical Working Group was convened in 2016 consisting of all participating line ministries and stakeholders. However, Malaysia has yet to establish a systematic assessment of the impact of budgetary allocations on the implementation of the rights of the child. (KPWKM, 2nd to 5th Periodic Reports 2008-2018)
Alternative Care Policy in Line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Limited
UNICEF Malaysia 2018
i
Guidance on preferences for out-of-home care, which might be seen as best practice, and regulations for protectors to impose conditions on non-parental carers and to appoint a ‘fit and proper person’ is contained in the new regulations, but awaiting training to enable implementation. Lack of understanding on the terminologies of Alternative Care with variation i.e. malay translation what constitute family based care. Many defined (and limit the option or interchangebale terming it as to foster care), https://ejournal.ukm.my/ebangi/article/view/26956
Centralised Authority on Adoption
 
No
MJF 2018
i
Inter-country adoption is not permitted under the Adoption Act of 1952 (revised January, 2013). Malaysia has not ratified the 1993 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children. Informal private adoption placements continue to take place in Malaysia. Some say this is in part due to the complex adoption procedures and the many couples desperate to have a child. It is difficult to trace clear information in the case of a direct private placement. The babies are likely “marketed” by midwives, doctors, birth mothers who have babies for sale/faced with difficult circumstances and prostitutes impregnated by their pimps. These baby rackets operations run deep involving the most respectable echelon of the society i.e. doctors whom could easily falsify the medical certification for birth registration of the child. The child often goes to the highest bidder in the scheme thou not necessarily the best parents or family.
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion
 
Partly
KPWKM, Second to Fifth Periodic Report 2008-2018
i
Act 611 in 2016 including provisions which stipulate that it is desirable to place a child in an FBC to allow for the care of a child in a family environment. The law acknowledges that the family is the “fundamental group in society which provides the natural environment for the growth, support and well-being of all its members, particularly children” and they should “be afforded the necessary assistance to enable them to fully assume their responsibilities”. However, there appears to be no specific provisions addressing how this assistance is to be given to families in the Act. Collaboration between OrphanCare and Lumos Foundation 2015-2019; several conferences & workshop to promote/advocate for deinstititionalization and Strategic Review (case study of state of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan) 2018. Implementation of Preservation Family-Based (FBC) cited in the Social Welfare Department (JKM) Strategic Plan 2021-2025.
Comprehensive Child Protection Law
 
Partly
UNICEF SitAn 2020
i
Reports suggest the child protection system and provision of child protection services in Malaysia, particularly at the secondary and tertiary level are inconsistent and do not reach all areas. Further, though the DSW was reported to have issued guidance on the delivery of child protection services in 2017, a 2018 UNICEF study found that many child protectors (i.e. members of the social welfare workforce) had not received training in this guidance. Also study found that no guidance was provided in relation to the best interests of the child, or listening to the child during child protection and related proceedings. Malaysia ratified the UNCRC in 1995. The child protection system that was established by the Child Act (2001) as amended (2016) echo key principles of the Convention. Child Act in 2001, which consolidated three previous laws affecting the main groups of children at risk: the Child Protection Act 1991 (for the protection of children in need of protection and care); the Juvenile Courts Act 1947 (for the protection of children in conflict with the law), and the Women and Girls Protection Act 1973 (for the protection of girls and women exposed to ‘moral harm’)
Continuum of Alternative Care Services Available
 
Limited
UNICEF SitAn 2020
i
Implementation of Preservation Family-Based (FBC) cited in the DSW Strategic Plan 2021-2025. Diversion programmes for children in conflict with law - piloted in 3 districts in Dec 2019. Focus on counselling, rehabilitation and community service modules which are monitored by the Department of Social Welfare (DSW). The Taskforce on Diversion was initially set up by MWFCD to develop in 2016.
Data System
 
No
MJF 2018
Existence of a Regulatory Body and Regulatory System
 
No
MJF 2018
i
Registration process for alternative care service provision is not integrated alongside with the other Acts in protecting children in care. Different govt agencies keeping track of registration of registered institutions; 33,000 institutions are registered with the JKM of which only 3,000 of those institutions are welfare related. Of which many were reported to be caring for children under the age of 5 years old. Does not include faith-based care facilities, report mentions that there are have been 900 new private Islamic schools across the whole of Malaysia over the past six years. In a separate Lumos publication, Ending the Institutionalization of children in Malaysia (2014), it was quoted that there were 90 registered privately-run institutions housing 4,500 children.
Gatekeeping Mechanism/Policy
 
No
MJF 2018
i
Notably, there was no mention on any initiatives in promoting family preservation or strengthening in preventing admissions of children into institutions. Nor any discussion or weight given toward family reunification efforts of the children already in the care centres.
Means of Tracking Progress with Reforms
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on Admission into Institutions for Children Under 3
 
No
MJF 2018
Moratorium on New Institutions
 
No
MJF 2018
National Action Plan to Guide Reforms
 
Limited
UNICEF SitAn 2020
i
Child Act 2001 was amended in 2016 to require the Court to take ‘into consideration that it is desirable to place a child in a family-based care’, though guidance on the application of this is not available.
National Standards of Care
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Often read with with Child Care Centre Act 1984 Amendment – Act 1285/2007 for child care centres. Amendments are more for administrative purposes than for the assertion of quality child care as they include the increase in categories of child care centres – from two to four (which are home-, workplace-, community- and institution-based child care centres); the licence to operate a child care centre which is to be issued for 60 calendar months instead of 12; and the display of the licence in a conspicuous place in the premise (Chiam, 2008)
Prevention of Separation Services Available
 
Limited
MJF 2018
Support for Careleavers (in Legislation and in Practice)
 
No
MJF 2018

social_work_force

Social Service Workforce

Add New Data Explore Data
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
--
Workers
GSSWA 2019
No. of government social service workers with child protection responsibilities (per 100,000 children)
i
There are approximately a further 4,300 assistant social welfare officers, with diploma level education, including workers who are gazetted as probation officers or child protection officer. Department of Social Welfare had around 6,900 staff in 2013, including those handling child welfare cases.However, the number of social service workers, whether in all services or in child and family welfare, is not known precisely. A 2018 survey by UNICEF Malaysia noted that since the enactment of the Child Act (Amendment 2016), social service workers are gazetted across several areas including child protection (1,615 officers), probation (1,618 officers) and anti-trafficking operations (119 officers). Only 236 officers are directly involved in handling child protection cases and 183 officers are managing children in conflict with the law. In 2017, a series of guiding regulations was issued by the Department of Social Welfare, covering eight areas of practice. However, in the same survey it was cited that the child protectors stated that they were waiting for training on implementation of these guidelines. Training specifically for child protection and welfare is also not systematic, with about 67 per cent of protectors not being graduates. There is also no requirement for a specific previous education.
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
No
GSSWA 2019
i
The number of staff and training appears not to be appropriate and available at all levels, nor is it considered to reflect the ethnic composition of the population. There are no clear steps planned towards professionalisation of social work.
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
No
KPWKM 2nd to 5th Periodic Reports 2008 - 2018, UNICEF Malaysia to the UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty Human Rights 2019
i
As of 2018, specific legislation on Social Work Profession: to accord professional status to social workers and regulate the social work profession being reviewed. Deputy Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail intended to table a new Bill i.e through introducing the Social Workers Profession Act in 2019 prior to the change of the current government. Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit reported that there is 1 social worker : 8,756 Malaysians. The total number of social welfare officers with undergraduate university qualifications is estimated by MASW to be only 700, with an additional 4,300 assistant social welfare officers holding diploma level qualifications

key_stakeholders

Key Stakeholders

Add New Data
Country
Government
Civil Society Organisations
Effective

Displaying 1 - 10 of 44

List of Organisations

Transforming Children's Care Global Collaborative Platform,

This webinar will explore participation in foster care with particular focus on individual decision making for children and young people. We will be hearing from people with lived experience of foster care in different contexts, including Malaysia and Ireland.

Mixed Migration Centre,

Despite high risks en route and upon arrival, Rohingya movement to Malaysia continues. This snapshot focuses on the specific risks facing Rohingya women and children before leaving Myanmar or Bangladesh, during their journey, and upon arrival in Malaysia. MMC Asia has been conducting survey with Rohingya in Malaysia since January 2019 in order to better understand their migration experiences. This snapshot contributes to building a solid evidence base to inform targeted responses that improve protection for Rohingya refugees and inform advocacy efforts related to movements to Malaysia.

Free Malaysia Today,

The Malaysian government does not have any plans to ban underage marriages, but women, family and community development minister Rina Harun says it remains committed to preventing such unions. She said there was a need to manage the issue through education, advocacy, strengthening the family institution and socioeconomic support in the community.

Family For Every Child,

Salary:

GBP £50-55,000 equivalent - fixed in local currency. Salary will be determined based on experience and adjusted to the local market rate.

Qishin Tariq - The Star,

Malaysian children, especially teenagers, are becoming anxious and depressed from spending too much time online with classes and socialising limited mostly there, a new study finds.

Siti Hajar Abdul Rauf, Asmah Ismail, Nuratikah Azima Razali, Ahmad Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki - Indian Journal of Psychiatric Social Work,

The aim of this study was to investigate the status of children depression using the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) at 21 shelter care institutions in Terengganu, Malaysia.

Marjan Mohammadzadeh, Hamidin Awang, Suriani Ismail, Hayati Kadir Shahar - PLoS ONE,

The current randomized control study aimed to determine, if a life skills-based intervention could improve the emotional health and self-esteem among Malaysian adolescents in orphanages.

Cherish How & Jariah Mohd Jan - Journal of Language Studies,

This qualitative study uses speech act categories and stages of concern to examine the voices of concern, of teachers and caregivers towards the academic performance of foster children in Malaysia.

Ropizah Rohani, Zakiyah Jamaluddin, Abd Razak Abd Manaf - Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies,

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework on the key determinant of psychosocial adjustments in terms of behavior, social, emotion and mental health among abused children in residential care.

Family for Every Child,

Family for Every Child is looking for a Knowledge Management Coordinator to strengthen the Alliance’s capacity to transform information into knowledge, which both informs their own joint work and is used to evidence impact, and influence others.