Indonesia

List of Organisations

demographic_data

Demographic Data

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270.63 million
Total Population
World Bank 2019
25.9%
Population Under 18
 
Statista Research Department, 2021
3.9
People
Mean Household Size
DHS, 2017
14.8%
Prevalence of Female-Headed Households
 
World Bank, 2017
Upper Middle-Income Country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank, 2019
9.4%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
World Bank, 2019
38.2
GINI Coefficient
World Bank, 2019
0.718
Human Development Index
UNDP, 2019

childrens_living_arrangement

Children's Living Arrangements

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%
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
89%
Living with Both Parents
 
MICS 2000
7.2%
Living with One Parent
 
MICS 2000
3.4%
Living with Neither Parent
 
MICS 2000
%
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

children_living_without_bio

Children Living Without Biological Parents

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76%
Both Parents Alive
 
MICS 2000
15%
One Parent Dead
 
MICS 2000
9%
Both Parents Dead
 
MICS 2000

Children at Risk of Separation

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15.7%
Children Living Below Poverty Line (Urban)
 
Indonesian National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas), 2018
i
The more affluent region of Java, for example, was home to nearly 4.6 million children living below the national poverty line in 2018.
3.25%
Children Engaged in Child Labor
 
Sakernas, 2020
3.3%
Children with Disabilities
 
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS), 2020
i
Age 5-17
14%
Left Behind Children (Migration)
 
UNICEF, 2020
i
Out of 356,000
Children Affected by HIV
6,500
Children
UNAIDS, 2021
i
Age 0-19
Street Connected Children
16,290
Children
Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Social Affairs, 2017
i
In Jakarta there are more than 16.000 street children who work in informal sectors. collecting recyclable waste or scavenging, begging, shoe-shining, car window cleansing, bus cleaning, street singing, street peddling, baggage carrying, child prostitution, lending umbrellas and illegal parking assistants.
48.4%
Children Experiencing Violence
 
Susenas, 2020
i
Proportion of households with children aged 1-17 years who experienced physical punishment and/or psychological aggression from caregivers in the last year.
Children in Conflict with the Law
704
Children
KPAI, 2020
8.9%
Children Living Below the National Poverty Line (Rural)
 
Indonesian National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas), 2018
i
The more affluent region of Java, for example, was home to nearly 4.6 million children living below the national poverty line in 2018.
Children on the Move (Refugees)
2,455
Children
UNHCR Global Trends, 2020
i
Age 0-17
COVID-19 Orphans
25,430
Children
MoWECP & UNICEF, 2021
i
The mapping finds that the majority of children (57 per cent) have lost a male caregiver, over a third (37 per cent) have lost a female caregiver, and around five per cent have lost both caregivers. Most of the children are currently being looked after by a female caregiver, some by their extended families while 114 children are unaccompanied and are not being cared for by any adult.
Children in Detention
3,673
Children
Ministry of Law & Human Rights, 2014
i
22% of all children who were in detention were unsentenced. Boys made up 97%.
16%
Child Marriages
 
UNICEF, 2021
i
Levels of child marriage vary significantly across different regions of the country, from an average of 8% in Sumatera to 16% in Kalimantan (Susenas 2018). Indonesia Parliament raised the minimum age for marriage from 16 to 19 in 2019.
Child Trafficking
1
per 100,000
Indonesian Task Force of Prevention and Law Enforcement, 2015
i
Trafficking appears to be a highly gendered issue: women and girls are almost five times more likely to be assisted due to trafficking than men and boys respectively.
56%
Children Whose Births are Registered
 
DHS, 2017
i
Children aged 0–4 years with a birth certificate from the civil registry office.

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

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0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Family-Based Alternative Care
- - Families/Parents
963 Children
i
Family and alternative care
KPAI, 2020
Foster Care
30 Foster Families/Foster Parents
- - Children
i
Foster Care Guideline No. 1 was adopted in early 2020. Foster care was piloted in Jakarta, West Java and Yogyakarta resulting in 30 proper foster care undertaken.
Save the Children, 2021
Formal Kinship Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Guardianship
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
i
Government regulation on guardianship on No. 29 passed in 2019.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Residential Care
- - Settings
- - Children
i
Most child care institutions were formerly called Panti Asuhan meaning orphanages, but there are now called Lembaga Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak (LKSA) or Child Social Welfare Institutions. In addition to child care institutions for neglected children, there are another 17 different types of residential facilities recognized by the MoSA that provide services for children, either on their own or together with adults. These include Disabled People’s Homes, rehabilitative institutions for children considered ‘naughty’ or juvenile delinquents, shelters for street children and Special Protection Homes (RPSA-Rumah Perlindungan Sosial Anak) for child victims of abuse and trafficking. List of registered residential care facilities can be found on BAPENAS - Satu Data Indonesia portal.
Martin, 2013
Islamic Boarding Schools (pesantren)
- - Settings
3,300,000 Children
i
Managed by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, there are over 27,000 pesantren whose primary focus is to provide religious and in some cases also formal education.
Martin, 2013

adoption

NO DATA AVAIABLE
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
0
children
Inter-country Adoption
SOS Children’s Villages International, 2016
i
Indonesia is not party to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. Following the tsunami in 2004, Indonesia banned the transfer of any child under the age of 16 from the most devastated province of Aceh, and explicitly banned any inter-country adoptions.
NO DATA AVAIABLE
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Parental Survivorship

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95.7%
Children with Both Parents Alive
 
MICS 2000
3.6%
Children with One Parent Alive
 
MICS 2000
.3%
Children with Both Parents Dead
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Progress Indicators

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Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Social Welfare Spending
NO SOURCE GIVEN
% 0
Child Protection Spending
UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, 2017
Alternative Care Policy in Line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Yes
BCN & UNICEF, 2015
i
National standards requires child welfare bodies to establish a system that supports family-based care in accordance with children’s best interests, and facilitates children’s participation in decision-making according to his/her wishes. Indonesian law mandates that, wherever possible, guardians should be appointed from the child’s own family.
Centralised Authority on Adoption
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
i
Legal safeguards have been in place around prevention of institutionalization and promotion of family-based care under the Families First programme by Save the Children.
Comprehensive Child Protection Law
 
Yes
GSSWA, 2019
i
The Indonesian child protection system is governed by the Law on Child Protection (Number 23/2002) and contains elements at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. At the primary level, policies and services to promote the capacities of families and to provide information exist across several sectors. These include social protection and poverty alleviation, as well as health and education. At the secondary level, there are social services to provide for the well-being of children specifically, including children with disabilities, street children and children in conflict with the law. Tertiary level interventions at subnational levels are delivered through a network of services coordinated by local government.
Continuum of Alternative Care Services Available
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
i
1) Government Regulation on guardianship No. 29/2019; 2) Ministerial regulation on Foster Care Guideline was adopted - MoSa Decree No 1/2020 & Government Regulation No. 44/2017
Data System
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
Existence of a Regulatory Body and Regulatory System
 
Yes
BCN & GSSWA, 2015
i
A national registration system for residential care facilities and a database for children in residential care were developed.
Gatekeeping Mechanism/Policy
 
Yes
SOS, 2016
i
Pro-active efforts to ensure gatekeeping have been undertaken by Dinas Social staff. Recognising that many children enter institutions in order to access education, at the start of the academic year Dinas Social staff are increasing discussions with child care institution managers to ensure gatekeeping and assessments so that only children that are eligible enter and to do so they must have a recommendation letter from Dinas Social. The establishment of gatekeeping mechanisms and use of individual case management is also support re-assessment of children in institutions and family reunification processes.
Means of Tracking Progress with Reforms
 
Yes
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on Admission into Institutions for Children Under 3
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on New Institutions
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
1) MoSA Decree No.30/HUK/2020; 2)Government Regulation No.44/2017
National Action Plan to Guide Reforms
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
i
Government regulation concerning childcare implementation No. 44/2017
National Standards of Care
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
i
National Standards of Care for Child Welfare Institutions, adopted under Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA) regulation 30/HUK/2011. Rolled out to 34 provinces, and 7,440 institutions accepted accreditation as of 2020 by Social Welfare Institution Accreditation Body in Indonesia known as Badan Akreditasi Lembaga Kesejahteraan Sosial (BALKS).
Prevention of Separation Services Available
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
i
Child and Family Support Center (Pusat Dukungan Anak dan Keluarga - PDAK) aims to strengthen the case management approach in working with children and families through supervision and database utilization; strengthen professional and para-social workers on Child Protection, Child Safeguard Policy, and Supervision; ensure children's reunification with birth family or placement of children in alternative family-based care arrangements (kinship care, foster care and adoption); as well as support parenting skill for biological and substitute parents/caregivers.
Support for Careleavers (in Legislation and in Practice)
 
Yes
NO SOURCE GIVEN

social_work_force

Social Service Workforce

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Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
80
Workers
GSSWA, 2019
No. of government social service workers with child protection responsibilities (per 100,000 children)
i
Estimated 68, 745 total number of social service workers (not including approximately 90,000 volunteers assisting in social welfare provisions). However, no differentiation between government / non-government.
80
Workers
GSSWA, 2019
No. of non-government social service workers with responsibility for child protection per 100,000 children
i
It is reported by MoSA that at present there are 1,740 professional and paraprofessional civil servants, including 1,458 social workers and 282 social extension workers/social campaigners in the government social welfare system.
1,421
Members
Social Work Association
BCN & GSSWA, 2015
i
Indonesia Association of Professional Social Workers (IPSPI) with Code of Ethics as well as registered member of IFSW. Together s Indonesia Association for Social Work Education (IPPSI), the 2 main bodies responsible for the played significant roles in strengthening the social service workforce by building consensus on the qualifications, knowledge, skills, and competencies of various levels of social workers lending to reform of the social work education system and profession.
-1
None Provided
Digitalization of Social Work / E-learning
Save the Children, 2021
i
By end of 2020, 1080 social workers have followed e-learning case management. In 2020, 383 of 487 of them passed the test in 2020 and got a certificate that can be used as one of the inputs for the certification test of social work competency.
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
Yes
Save the Children, 2021
i
Well established and comprehensive social work tradition in Indonesia with 28 with academic programmes for the training of professional social workers and eight regional training centers operated by the Department of Social Welfare. Social work certification of competency programme which resulted in 3,132 certified social workers from 2012 to 2020. 2,420 certified social worker and 2,071 para social workers (2016-2020).
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
Yes
SOS Children’s Villages International, 2016
i
The Ministerial Regulation on the Certification of Professional Social Workers and Social Welfare Officers (Tenaga Kesejahteraan Sosial - TKS) was adopted in 2009 (No. 108/HUK/2009). In 2011 members of the Social Worker Certification Body (Lembaga Sertifikasi Pekerja Sosial - LSPS) were appointed. These initiatives are implemented to further endorse the Social Welfare Law number 11/2009 that stipulated certification and accreditation.

key_stakeholders

Key Stakeholders

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Government
Civil Society Organisations
Effective

Other Relevant Reforms

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Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Child Protection
i
The Government of Indonesia’s child protection agenda has led to significant improvements in children’s well-being in recent years. A key factor in strengthening child protection is the development and improvement of policies, which require continuous attention to achieve positive child protection outcomes over the long run. Ensuring birth registration for all children presents an ongoing challenge in Indonesia, as does decreasing the prevalence of violence against children. Recently, the need has arisen to develop policies and programmes to meet the needs of children living without parental care and protect children during disasters. Child protection adds a new dimension to the overall need for disaster risk reduction, preparedness and response. Other developments include Instructions from Deputy of Child Protection No 776/2019 on Code of Conduct Implementation of Child Protection and Government Regulation No. 59/2019 on Child Protection Coordination. More recently, National Protocol & Guidance for Child Protection during Covid19 Pandemic. Since 2019, UNICEF country office is supporting MoSA in piloting an integrated child welfare service model, in order to improve the linkages between child protection services, child and family support services and social protection mechanisms available in the country. MoSA is in the process of rolling this out from 5 to 116 districts. (GSSWA, 2019)
UNICEF, 2018
Decentralisation
i
In the context of decentralisation of the government system the social welfare system has been highly unregulated and heavily reliant on private, faith-based organizations for the delivery of services. Law No 32 of 2004 on Local Governance reaffirmed the Central Government overall responsibility for ensuring the application of minimum standards in social welfare in the context of the local autonomy while local government is responsible for the provision and delivery of social services through their provincial and district/city offices. Each province has a provincial and a district/city Social Affairs Office (Dinas Sosial) which has a section or directorate responsible for social services for children. In most provinces, social welfare service structures do not extend below the district level (ECPAT et al., 2014).
BCN & GSSWA, 2014
Migration
i
In December 2016, the president of Indonesia, decreed the Presidential Regulation number 125 (Perpres 125), or the Presidential Regulation on the Handling of Foreign Refugees. This regulation provides a framework for a nationally coordinated response to asylum seekers and refugees. This decree also provides a definition of refugees and asylum seekers based on the 1951 Convention and as a result refugees and asylum seekers are no longer classified as irregular migrants.This decree has, overall, had some positive consequences for asylum seekers and refugees.First, the decree has meant that refugees and asylum seekers are granted freedom of movement and do not live in fear of being arrested and detained. Second, government agencies have a coherent definition of refugees and asylum seekers and have amended their behaviour towards this group. Essentially, government organisations now see refugees and asylum seekers as different to irregular migrants and to be treated as such. Third, the incidence and risk of refoulement has decreased, and the practice of “pushing migrants back to sea” is no longer taking place. Fourth, the decree has provided a division of labour among ministries and departments, helping to improve the coordination and effectiveness of refugee protection. While it is encouraging that Indonesia has become party to both conventions to ensure the adequate protection of refugees, as will be discussed below, some gaps still exist. Nevertheless this is a positive step.
Save the Children, 2018
Social Protection
i
Indonesia has three main tax-financed social protection schemes focusing directly on children i) Family Hope Programme (Program Keluarga Harapan – PKH); ii) Program Indonesia Pintar (PIP); and iii) Child Social Welfare Programme (Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak or PKSA). PKH is a conditional cash transfer programme, primarily designed to reduce the gaps in very poor families’ access to health, education services and improve maternal and neonatal health. Includes case management, supervision and parenting programmes. PIP aims to provide support to cover the indirect costs associated with education (i.e. transportation costs, uniforms, etc.), which are recognized as being a barrier to access for lower-income households. PKSA is a special conditional cash transfer programme for 5 categories of vulnerable including: neglected children under the age of 5 years, street children and neglected children above 5 years, children in contact with the law, children with disabilities and children in need of special protection. Beneficiaries details are captured in the Unified Database (Basis Data Terpadu/BDT) periodically updated through the Social Protection Program Data Collection by BPS-Statistics Indonesia. The BDT is managed by the Ministry of Social Affairs and TNP2K.
BAPPENAS, 2017
Women Headed Household Empowerment Program (PEKKA)
World Bank, 2012
i
52,000 family members of 20,000 women have improved their livelihood and well-being. Outcomes include the establishments of 750 PEKKA groups in 475 villages of 19 provinces; 1,500 grassroots women leaders actively engaged in various processes in community decision-making and development planning. And more than 100 PEKKA paralegals that assisted 6,639 poor children in getting birth certificates, 2,317 members in accessing village court for marriage cases, and 14 women in presenting cases of violence to court.

drivers_of_institutionalisation

Drivers of Institutionaliziation

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Push Factors
Pull Factors
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Displaying 1 - 10 of 94

List of Organisations

Adi Renald - South China Morning Post,

Indonesia’s Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection (KPPPA) recorded a sharp increase in human trafficking cases during the pandemic with 256 victims in 2021, compared to 213 in 2020 and 111 in 2019.

PUSKAPA, UNICEF, BAPPENAS,

This study combines a quantitative overview of the leading indicators of well-being among children and young people in cities, with a qualitative, in-depth understanding of how daily life is perceived and experienced by the urban young. The quantitative analysis has predominantly employed existing national data sets, such as The National Socioeconomic Survey (SUSENAS) and the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), to understand the situation of children in urban settings. The secondary analysis assessed approximately 20 indicators that are based on the SDG/Sustainable Development Goal themes, and that align with the Indonesian National Medium Term Development Plan 2020–2024. The combination of secondary analysis, a systematic literature review, and consultations with children and young people generated insights on the constraints and opportunities faced by them and their broader urban communities.

Al Jazeera,

As Indonesia’s COVID-19 death toll rises, too many young children are learning the despair of losing their parents.

WHO South-East Asia Regional Office in collaboration with UNICEF,

The WHO South-East Asia Regional Office in collaboration with UNICEF organized a 3-day virtual meeting from 27 to 29 April, 2021.

World Vision,

This consultation explores children and young people’s views and experiences related to COVID-19 and its secondary impacts.

World Vision and UNICEF East Asia and Pacific,

More than 100 child participants across East Asia convened with government officials to discuss the increased instances of child violence experienced during COVID-19 at World Vision’s Asia Pacific Child Well-Being Learning Exchange forum on 18 November 2020.

Margareth S. Aritonang and Evi Mariani - The Jakarta Post,

A collaborative team between The Jakarta Post and Tirto.id have uncovered facts that confirm that both the state and the Catholic Church allowed a suspected child molester who was running an orphanage in Depok West Java "to walk free from police detention to celebrate Christmas, and a few months later set up a new orphanage and live among vulnerable boys again," according to this article from the Jakarta Post.

Amelia Andrews - SOS Children's Villages,

"Child representatives and care leavers from South East Asia have called for increased support for continuing education, psychosocial care, finding jobs and affordable housing in the wake of COVID-19," according to this news article from SOS Children's Villages.

World Vision,

This child-led research initiative was conducted under the umbrella of World Vision’s DEAR project (Development Education and Awareness Raising) and the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. The study explores explore SDG 16.2, the goal that focuses on the issue of ‘abuse, exploitation, trafficking, and all forms of violence against and torture of children’.

Alya Nurbaiti - The Jakarta Post,

A survey administered by Save the Children in Indonesia has revealed several key risks faced by children and families in Indonesia as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to this article from the Jakarta Post.