Thailand

This country page features an interactive, icon-based data dashboard providing a national-level overview of the status of children’s care and care reform efforts (a “Country Care Snapshot”), along with a list of resources and organizations in the country.

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List of Organisations

demographic_data

Demographic Data

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69.63 million
Total Population
World Bank, 2019
16.43 million
People
Total Population Under 18
Estimate
23.6%
Population Under 18
 
MICS, 2015-2016
3.7
People
Mean Household Size
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2019
40%
Prevalence of Female-Headed Households
 
MICS 2019
Upper Middle Income Country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank, 2019
9.9%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
World Bank, 2018
36.4
GINI Coefficient
World Bank, 2018
0.765
Human Development Index
UNDP

childrens_living_arrangement

Children's Living Arrangements

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%
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
53.7%
Living with Both Parents
 
MICS 2019
21.4%
Living with One Parent
 
MICS 2019
23.5%
Living with Neither Parent
 
MICS 2019
%
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

children_living_without_bio

Children Living Without Biological Parents

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97.7%
Living in Kinship Care
 
MICS 2019
0.2%
Living With a Non-Relative
 
MICS 2019
94%
Both Parents Alive
 
MICS 2019
5%
One Parent Dead
 
MICS 2019
0.9%
Both Parents Dead
 
MICS 2019

Children at Risk of Separation

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Children living below poverty line
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
i
Data collected by the Bureau of Women and Child Protection & Welfare (BWCPW) for 2015 fiscal year, shows abandonment and poverty as the main drivers behind children being placed in government residential care facilities.
Children with Disabilities
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including inability of parents/care givers to look after a child (for a range of reasons, and particularly in the case of children with special needs, multiple special needs, and children living with HIV).
Children affected by HIV
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including inability of parents/care givers to look after a child (for a range of reasons, and particularly in the case of children with special needs, multiple special needs, and children living with HIV).
Children Experiencing Violence
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including neglect and abuse, especially in the family (including physical, psychological and sexual abuse, as well as exploitation).
Children Whose Parents/Caregivers Are Unable to Look After Them
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including inability of parents/care givers to look after a child (for a range of reasons, and particularly in the case of children with special needs, multiple special needs, and children living with HIV).
Children who have been abandoned
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including abandonment.

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

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0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Family-Based Alternative Care
- - Families/Parents
5,250 Children
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Foster Care
- - Foster Families/Foster Parents
250 Children
i
According to UNICEF, 0.5% of the approximately 50,000 children in alternative care in Thailand live in foster care
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Formal Kinship Care
- - Families/Parents
5,000 Children
i
According to UNICEF, 10% of the approximately 50,000 children in alternative care in Thailand live in registered kinship care. Formalised kinship care in Thailand falls under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security within the Department of Social Development and Welfare (DSDW) and is handled by the Child Adoption Centre (CAC). For the 2015 fiscal year (October 2014-September 2015), the Child Adoption Centre was allocated a budget of 120 million baht (approximately 4 million USD) with a target group of 5,000 children to support in registered kinship care families.
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Total Residential Care
- - Settings
44,750 Children
i
According to UNICEF, there are almost 50,000 children living in various residential care settings in Thailand as of 2014. The majority of the children, or 67.4%, reside in the 51 government boarding schools throughout Thailand that in many cases function as residential care, followed by government residential care facilities (14.7%), registered kinship care (10%), private registered residential care (4.7%), non-registered private residential care (1.8%), provincial Shelters for Children and Families (0.9%), and foster care (0.5%).
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Government Boarding Schools
51 Settings
33,700 Children
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Government Residential Care Facilities
- - Settings
7,350 Children
i
The full definition of residential/institutional care as declared by the Thai government, under the Child Protection Act of 2003, and with additional information provided by UNICEF, is as follows: "Institutional / Residential Care: Care provided in any non-family based group setting, such as places of safety for emergency care, transit centres in emergency situations, and all other forms of short and long term residential care facilities, including group homes." According to UNICEF (2015), there are approximately 50,000 children in residential care in Thailand. 67.4% are in government boarding schools, 14.7% are in government residential care facilities, 1% are in provincial Shelters for Children and Families, 4.7% are in private registered residential care, and 1.8% are in non-registered private residential care.
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Private Registered Residential Care
- - Settings
2,350 Children
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Non-Registered Private Residential Care
- - Settings
900 Children
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Provincial Shelters for Children and Families
- - Settings
450 Children
Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)

adoption

NO DATA AVAIABLE
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
2,303
children
Domestic Adoption
Source: HCCH, 2013; Date Range: 2011-2013
i
Based on HCCH Annual Statistics for 2011-2013 available, 2303 children were placed for domestic adoption while 344 were placed out for inter-country adoption.
344
children
Inter-country Adoption
Source: HCCH, 2013; Date Range: 2011-2013
i
Based on HCCH Annual Statistics for 2011-2013, 2303 children were placed for domestic adoption while 344 were placed out for inter-country adoption.
NO DATA AVAIABLE
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Parental Survivorship

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95.5%
Children with Both Parents Alive
 
MICS 2019
2.9%
Children with One Parent Alive
 
MICS 2019
0.2%
Children with Both Parents Dead
 
MICS 2019

Progress Indicators

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Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Social Welfare Spending
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Alternative Care Policy in Line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Limited
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
The inadequate harmonization of the current legal framework with the CRC is evident in the 2003 Child Protection Act (Article 33) which actually facilitates long-term institutionalisation – up to 24 years of age - and undermines efforts to prioritize family-based care. This runs counter to the principles of the UN Guidelines of necessity, suitability as well as the best interest of the child and substantially undermines gatekeeping practices. Source: Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Centralised Authority on Adoption
 
Yes
Child Adoption Board (CAB) of Thailand
i
The adoption process is overseen by the Child Adoption Board (CAB) of Thailand, with the aid of various government officials working under the Child Adoption Center (CAC), the Department of Child and Youth (DCY) Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS).
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Comprehensive Child Protection Law
 
Partly
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
Over the last 15 years, Thailand has made significant progress towards placing alternative care for children within the broader legal and policy context of child protection. However, there are still challenges to realize a coordinated multi-sectoral system approach. This situation is largely due to the fragmentation of the current legal and policy framework governing child protection that results in confusion of roles, responsibilities, and accountability at all levels. Source: Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Continuum of Alternative Care Services Available
 
Partly
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
Thailand utilizes residential care, formal kinship care, and foster care. Source: Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Data System
 
No
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
Government residential care facilities (as well as some private facilities) collect data and report this to the provincial and national levels, but this information is not compiled into a shared national database of children in alternative care. As a result, facilities often face challenges when they do not receive complete information about the child or when case management information is not transferred from one agency to another. Source: Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Existence of a Regulatory Body and Regulatory System
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Gatekeeping Mechanism/Policy
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Means of Tracking Progress with Reforms
 
Yes
Tracking Progress Initiative
i
The Thailand Alternative Care CRC Group began using the Tracking Progress Initiative Tool in late 2018
Moratorium on Admission into Institutions for Children Under 3
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on New Institutions
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
National Action Plan to Guide Reforms
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
National Standards of Care
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Prevention of Separation Services Available
 
Limited
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
UNICEF Situational Analysis of Children and Women in Thailand 2011 found that, although poverty levels continued to fall between 1992 and 2009, “Most families in Thailand have no access to family support services to help them through difficult times.” The UNICEF findings also pointed to the urgency to strengthen preventive services for child protection and ensuring provision of welfare services along with development of services targeting poor families, families at risk, families with member living with HIV/AIDS or affected by AIDS, and families with elderly caregivers. In their 2015 Review, UNICEF also notes "Fragmentation of legal and policy framework and lack of a multisectoral implementation strategy for alternative care with clearly defined roles and responsibilities and mechanisms for coordination and accountability (everybody is responsible but nobody is ultimately accountable)." Source: Review of Alternative Care in Thailand: Policy to Implementation with Special Focus on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, 2015)
Support for Careleavers (in Legislation and in Practice)
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN

social_work_force

Social Service Workforce

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Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
Association of Social Workers
 
Yes
Social Workers Association of Thailand (SWAT), Thai Association of Social Work and Social Welfare Education (TASWE)
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN

drivers_of_institutionalisation

Drivers of Institutionaliziation

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Country
Push Factors
Pull Factors
Effective

key_research_and_information

Key Data Sources

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Country
Effective

Displaying 1 - 10 of 79

List of Organisations

Transforming Children's Care Global Collaborative Platform,

This webinar, the fifth in the Transforming Children's Care Webinar Series focused on a new study ('Impact of COVID-19 on Privately Run Residential Care Institutions: Insights and Implications for Advocacy and Awareness Raising'). The study, comprising 21 semi-structured interviews across seven focus countries, explores the effect of COVID-19 on a small number of privately run and funded residential care institutions.

Alternative Care Thailand, UNICEF,

These presentations from UNICEF and Alternative Care Thailand were delivered during the July 9, 2021, workshop of the Care Measurement Task Force of the Transforming Children's Care Global Collaborative Platform. The focus of the workshop was on care measurement initiatives in Eastern and Southern Africa and Thailand.

WHO South-East Asia Regional Office in collaboration with UNICEF,

The WHO South-East Asia Regional Office in collaboration with UNICEF organized a 3-day virtual meeting from 27 to 29 April, 2021.

Rebecca Nhep, Better Care Network; Dr Kate van Doore, Law Futures Centre & Griffith Law School,

This study explores the effect of COVID-19 on a small number of privately run and funded residential care institutions by conducting a qualitative research study comprising 21 semi-structured interviews across seven focus countries.

Family Care First,

ស្របពេល​ដែលកើតមានឡើងនូវការរីករាលដាលនៃជំងឺកូវីដ-១៩ក្នុងសហគមន៍នៅទូទាំងប្រទេសកម្ពុជា យើងសូមចែករំលែកនូវវីដេអូមួយ ស្តីពីការគាំទ្រដល់បុគ្គលិកកាន់ករណី ក្នុងការធានាថា កុមារ និងគ្រួសារពួកគេ ដែលកំពុងទទួលការគាំទ្រពីយើង រួមទាំងខ្លួនបុគ្គលិកផ្ទាល់មានសុវត្ថិភាព។ យើងសង្ឃឹមថាវីដេអូខ្លីនេះ នឹងផ្តល់ជាសារប្រយោជន៍ដល់អ្នក និងក្រុមការងារ។ សូមថ្លែងអំណរគុណដល់ក្រសួងសង្គមកិច្ច អតីតយុទ្ធជន និងយុវនីតិសម្បទា សម្រាប់ការដឹកនាំការផលិត ដើម្បីឱ្យវីដេអូនេះសមស្របជាមួយគោលការណ៍ណែនាំ ស្តីពីការគ្រប់គ្រងករណីក្នុងអំឡុងពេលជំងឺកូវីដ១៩។ សូមរក្សាសុវត្ថិភាពរបស់ខ្លួនឱ្យបានខ្ជាប់ខ្ជួនគ្រប់ពេលវេលា។

World Vision,

This consultation explores children and young people’s views and experiences related to COVID-19 and its secondary impacts.

World Vision and UNICEF East Asia and Pacific,

More than 100 child participants across East Asia convened with government officials to discuss the increased instances of child violence experienced during COVID-19 at World Vision’s Asia Pacific Child Well-Being Learning Exchange forum on 18 November 2020.

Andy Lillicrap - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This report will look at One Sky Foundation’s experience over six years to establish holistic child and family support services as a viable alternative to the long-established reliance on private children’s homes in the rural border district of Sangkhlaburi, Thailand.

UNICEF,

The Child Protection section, UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) is seeking an individual consultant to provide technical support to Country Offices in the East Asia and the Pacific Region and the Regional Office on child protection in emergencies and disability inclusion in emergency programming.

Amelia Andrews - SOS Children's Villages,

"Child representatives and care leavers from South East Asia have called for increased support for continuing education, psychosocial care, finding jobs and affordable housing in the wake of COVID-19," according to this news article from SOS Children's Villages.