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Thailand

Demographic Data

36.4
Gini Coefficiency
World Bank, 2018
69.63 million
Total Population
World Bank, 2019
23.6%
Percent Population Under 18
 
MICS, 2015-2016
upper middle income country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank, 2019
0.765
High Human Development
Human Development Index
UNDP
9.9%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
World Bank, 2018
3.7
People
Median Household Size
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2019

Children's Living Arrangement

Children's Living Arrangements

Add New Data Data and Resources
%
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
56.7%
Living with Both Parents
 
MICS, 2015-2016
16.1%
Living with Mother Only
 
MICS, 2015-2016
4%
Living with Father Only
 
MICS, 2015-2016
22.7%
Living with Neither Parent
 
MICS, 2015-2016
i
The latest Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted by the Thailand National Statistical Office shows the scale of migration and its impact on children: almost 24 per cent of children under 18 years of age do not live with their biological parents, mostly due to internal migration.
1.4%
Living in Kinship Care with One Parent Dead
 
MICS, 2015-2016
0.1%
Living in Kinship Care with Both Parents Dead
 
MICS, 2015-2016
%
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Children Living without Biological Parent

Children Living Without Biological Parents

Add New Data Data and Resources
5000%
Living in Kinship Care
 
UNICEF, 2015
- - %
With One Parent Dead
 
NO DATA AVAILABLE
- - %
With Both Parents Dead
 
NO DATA AVAILABLE
250%
Living in Foster Care
 
UNICEF, 2015

Children at Risk of Separation

Children at Risk of Separation

Add New Data Data and Resources
Children living below poverty line
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF, 2015
i
Data collected by the Bureau of Women and Child Protection & Welfare (BWCPW) for 2015 fiscal year, shows abandonment and poverty as the main drivers behind children being placed in government residential care facilities.
Children with Disabilities
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF, 2015
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including inability of parents/care givers to look after a child (for a range of reasons, and particularly in the case of children with special needs, multiple special needs, and children living with HIV).
Children affected by HIV
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF, 2015
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including inability of parents/care givers to look after a child (for a range of reasons, and particularly in the case of children with special needs, multiple special needs, and children living with HIV).
Children experiencing violence
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF, 2015
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including neglect and abuse, especially in the family (including physical, psychological and sexual abuse, as well as exploitation).
Inability of parents/caregivers to look after a child
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF, 2015
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including inability of parents/care givers to look after a child (for a range of reasons, and particularly in the case of children with special needs, multiple special needs, and children living with HIV).
Abandonment
NO DATA AVAILABLE
UNICEF, 2015
i
Findings from UNICEF's research show that the risk of separation is shaped and experienced because of the complex interactions of multiple drivers, including abandonment.

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

Add New Data Data and Resources
Settings
Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Settings
Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Formal Family-Based Care
0 Settings
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Foster Care
0 Settings
250 Children
i
According to UNICEF, 0.5% of the approximately 50,000 children in alternative care in Thailand live in kinship care
UNICEF, 2015
Kinship Care
0 Settings
5000 Children
i
According to UNICEF, 10% of the approximately 50,000 children in alternative care in Thailand live in kinship care. Formalised kinship care in Thailand falls under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security within the Department of Social Development and Welfare (DSDW) and is handled by the Child Adoption Centre (CAC). For the 2015 fiscal year (October 2014-September 2015), the Child Adoption Centre was allocated a budget of 120 million baht (approximately 4 million USD) with a target group of 5,000 children to support in registered kinship care families.
UNICEF, 2015
0 Settings
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Government residential care facilities
0 Settings
7350 Children
i
The full definition of residential/institutional care as declared by the Thai government, under the Child Protection Act of 2003, and with additional information provided by UNICEF, is as follows: "Institutional / Residential Care: Care provided in any non-family based group setting, such as places of safety for emergency care, transit centres in emergency situations, and all other forms of short and long term residential care facilities, including group homes." According to UNICEF (2015), there are approximately 50,000 children in residential care in Thailand. 67.4% are in government boarding schools, 14.7% are in government residential care facilities, 1% are in provincial Shelters for Children and Families, 4.7% are in private registered residential care, and 1.8% are in non-registered private residential care.
UNICEF, 2015
Government boarding schools
51 Settings
33700 Children
UNICEF, 2015
Provincial Shelters for Children and Families
0 Settings
500 Children
UNICEF, 2015
Private registered residential care
0 Settings
2350 Children
UNICEF, 2015
Non-registered private residential care
0 Settings
900 Children
UNICEF, 2015

Adoption

NO DATA AVAIABLE
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
2303
children
Domestic Adoption
HCCH, 2013
i
Based on HCCH Annual Statistics for 2011-2013 available to date, 2303 children placed on domestic adoption while 344 placed out for inter-country adoption.
344
children
Inter-country Adoption
HCCH, 2013
i
Based on HCCH Annual Statistics for 2011-2013 available to date, 2303 children placed on domestic adoption while 344 placed out for inter-country adoption.
NO DATA AVAIABLE
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Key Reform Indicators/Progress Markers

Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Social Welfare Spending
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Alternative Care Policy in line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Limited
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
The inadequate harmonization of the current legal framework with the CRC is evident in the 2003 Child Protection Act (Article 33) which actually facilitates long-term institutionalisation – up to 24 years of age - and undermines efforts to prioritize family-based care. This runs counter to the principles of the UN Guidelines of necessity, suitability as well as the best interest of the child and substantially undermines gatekeeping practices.
Centralised authority on adoption
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion/Reforms
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Comprehensive child protection law
 
Partly
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
Over the last 15 years, Thailand has made significant progress towards placing alternative care for children within the broader legal and policy context of child protection. However, there are still challenges to realize a coordinated multi-sectoral system approach. This situation is largely due to the fragmentation of the current legal and policy framework governing child protection that results in confusion of roles, responsibilities, and accountability at all levels.
Continuum of alternative care services available
 
Partly
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
Thailand utilizes residential care, formal kinship care, and foster care
Data System
 
No
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
Government residential care facilities (as well as some private facilities) collect data and report this to the provincial and national levels, but this information is not compiled into a shared national database of children in alternative care. As a result, facilities often face challenges when they do not receive complete information about the child or when case management information is not transferred from one agency to another.
Existence of a regulatory body and regulatory system
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Gatekeeping mechanism/policy
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Means of tracking progress with reforms
 
Yes
Tracking Progress Initiative
i
The Thailand CRC Group began using the Tracking Progress Initiative Tool in late 2018
Moratorium on admission into institutions for children under 3
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on new institutions
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
National Action Plan
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
National Standards of Care
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Prevention of Separation Services available
 
Limited
Source: UNICEF, 2015
i
UNICEF Situational Analysis of Children and Women in Thailand 2011 found that, although poverty levels continued to fall between 1992 and 2009, “Most families in Thailand have no access to family support services to help them through difficult times.” The UNICEF findings also pointed to the urgency to strengthen preventive services for child protection and ensuring provision of welfare services along with development of services targeting poor families, families at risk, families with member living with HIV/AIDS or affected by AIDS, and families with elderly caregivers. In their 2015 Review, UNICEF also notes "Fragmentation of legal and policy framework and lack of a multisectoral implementation strategy for alternative care with clearly defined roles and responsibilities and mechanisms for coordination and accountability (everybody is responsible but nobody is ultimately accountable)."
Support for careleavers (in legislation and in practice)
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Social Work Force

Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
Association of Social Workers
 
Yes
Social Workers Association of Thailand (SWAT), Thai Association of Social Work and Social Welfare Education (TASWE)
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
Yes
NO SOURCE GIVEN
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
Yes
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Other Relevant Reforms

Other Relevant Reforms

Add New Data Data and Resources

Key Research Sources

Country
Effective

Drivers of Institutionalisation

Drivers of Institutionaliziation

Add New Data Data and Resources
Country
Push Factors
Pull Factors
Effective

Displaying 1 - 10 of 73

List of Organisations

World Vision and UNICEF East Asia and Pacific,

More than 100 child participants across East Asia convened with government officials to discuss the increased instances of child violence experienced during COVID-19 at World Vision’s Asia Pacific Child Well-Being Learning Exchange forum on 18 November 2020.

Andy Lillicrap - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This report will look at One Sky Foundation’s experience over six years to establish holistic child and family support services as a viable alternative to the long-established reliance on private children’s homes in the rural border district of Sangkhlaburi, Thailand.

UNICEF,

The Child Protection section, UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) is seeking an individual consultant to provide technical support to Country Offices in the East Asia and the Pacific Region and the Regional Office on child protection in emergencies and disability inclusion in emergency programming.

Amelia Andrews - SOS Children's Villages,

"Child representatives and care leavers from South East Asia have called for increased support for continuing education, psychosocial care, finding jobs and affordable housing in the wake of COVID-19," according to this news article from SOS Children's Villages.

Justin M Rogers, Victor Karunan - International Social Work,

This study examined deinstitutionalisation in Thailand. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a total of 27 child welfare practitioners and policy actors to explore their perceptions of Thai alternative care provision.

Down to Zero Alliance,

In this webinar, partners representing the Down to Zero Alliance, governments, and the travel & tourism sector in the region will take stock of the key challenges, including implications of the pandemic, versus progress made up to date in respect to child protection; to commit, through a joint statement calling for the travel and tourism recovery phase to keep child protection as a primary consideration.

UNICEF Thailand,

The Child Protection Section, UNICEF Thailand Country Office (TCO) is seeking an individual consultant to develop the National Action Plan and Roadmap on Alternative Care.

Alternative Care Thailand,

This animated video from Alternative Care Thailand tells the story of a boy in Thailand who is sent to live in an orphanage because his mother feels she is unable to care for him at home, his experiences with volunteers once he arrives at the orphanage, and how the orphanage transitioned to supporting children to live in families.

Boonying Manaboriboon, Supinya In-iw, Sureelak Sutcharipongsa, Gornmigar Winijkul, Sujitra Kumpa, Chiraporn Somchit, Chulathida Chomchai - Children and Youth Services Review,

This study aimed to examine characteristic and outcome of mothers and babies focusing on the teen-mothers and their existing risk-behaviors, also to evaluate factors associated with subsequent foster care placements of their infants.