Utilizing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children, this paper from Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Volume 76, Issue 4 examines critical components and current characteristics of alternative care for children in low‐resource countries. It begins by exploring the role of values within policy and practice related to child welfare. Then a brief examination comparing alternative care in high‐ versus low‐resource countries is presented. Alternative care includes a continuum approach beginning with family support and reunification, kinship care, foster care, domestic adoption, and ending with intercountry adoption. Specific examples are provided from Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Africa. The paper concludes with the need for more research related to alternative care outcomes that could inform policy and practice.