Cambodia

This country page features an interactive, icon-based data dashboard providing a national-level overview of the status of children’s care and care reform efforts (a “Country Care Snapshot”), along with a list of resources and organizations in the country.

Docs Orgs Countries Link

List of Organisations

demographic_data

Demographic Data

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16.52 million
Total Population
NIS 2019 provisional census data
i
Awaiting full census data to be released
6.11 million
People
Total Population Under 18
Estimate
37%
Population Under 18
 
UNICEF statistical profile
4.6
People
Mean Household Size
DHS, 2014
26.9%
Prevalence of Female-Headed Households
 
DHS 2014
Lower Middle Income Country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank 2016
12.9%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
ADB, 2020
37.9
GINI Coefficient
UN World Population Prospects 2019
0.582
Human Development Index
UNDP 2017

childrens_living_arrangement

Children's Living Arrangements

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%
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
78.1%
Living with Both Parents
 
DHS 2014
10.7%
Living with One Parent
 
DHS 2014
11.1%
Living with Neither Parent
 
DHS 2014
%
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

children_living_without_bio

Children Living Without Biological Parents

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97%
Living in Kinship Care
 
BCN Analysis of 2014 DHS Data
3%
Living With a Non-Relative
 
BCN Analysis of 2014 DHS Data
84%
Both Parents Alive
 
BCN Analysis of 2014 DHS Data
10%
One Parent Dead
 
BCN Analysis of 2014 DHS Data
7%
Both Parents Dead
 
BCN Analysis of 2014 DHS Data

Children at Risk of Separation

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Children living below poverty line
896,877
children
MoP IDPoor Program round 7-9 (2013-2015)
i
Children living in level 1 and level 2 ranked households
11%
Children engaged in Child Labor
 
ILO/NIS 2012- UNICEF Statistical Profile 2018
10.1%
Children with Disabilities
 
Handicap International 2015
i
10.1 percent of children in Cambodia have a disabling condition
21.1%
Left Behind Children (Migration)
 
CRUMP series report MUP 2015
i
% of migrant households with left behind children
Children affected by HIV
4,061
children
UNAIDS 2015
i
children between 0-14
Street Connected Children
3,545
children
UNICEF Statistical Profile 2018
i
Children living on the streets counted in 7 provinces including all major hotspots
60%
Children experiencing violence
 
Cambodia's Violence Against Children Survey 2014
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approximately 60 % of children experience a form of violence before 18 yrs old
Children in conflict with the law
1,540
children
UNICEF q.2 report 2019

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

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0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Family-Based Alternative Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Foster Care
- - Foster Families/Foster Parents
- - Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Formal Kinship Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Residential Care
639 Settings
26,187 Children
MoSVY 2017
Residential Care Institutions (RCIs)
406 Settings
16,579 Children
MoSVY 2017
Group Homes
71 Settings
1,592 Children
MoSVY 2017
Transit Homes/Temporary Emergency Accommodation
25 Settings
628 Children
MoSVY 2017
Boarding Schools/Boarding Houses
72 Settings
6,039 Children
MoSVY 2017
Pagoda and faith based care
65 Settings
1,349 Children
MoSVY 2017
Lancet Global Study Estimate of Children Living in Institutional Care
48,775 Children
i
Lower Bound: 48,775 Upper Bound: 48,775
Desmond, et al, 2020

Parental Survivorship

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94.1%
Children with Both Parents Alive
 
DHS
5.1%
Children with One Parent Alive
 
DHS
0.7%
Children with Both Parents Dead
 
DHS

Progress Indicators

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Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
% 1
Social Welfare Spending
ABD SPI 2015
i
This is the % allocated to social assistance from the SPI
$ 3.10 million
Child Welfare Spending
Social Protection Review OECD Cambodia 2017
i
1.7% of MoSVY budget in 2016
Alternative Care Policy in Line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Mostly
Prakas on the Enforcement of the Policy on the Alternative Care for Children 2006 & Prakas on the Procedure to Implement the Policy on the Alternative Care of Children
i
Policy was developed prior to the Guildeines and requires amendments to bring it into full conformity
Centralised Authority on Adoption
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion
 
Yes
MoSVY Action Plan for Improving Child Care 2016-2018
Comprehensive Child Protection Law
 
Partly
UNICEF Quarterly Brief 5 2019
i
Current legal framework is fragmented however comprehensive Child Protection law is in development
Continuum of Alternative Care Services Available
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Data Source: Cambodia Country Care Profile 2020
Data System
 
Mostly
UNCIEF Quarterly Brief 5 2019
i
Includes National CPMIS, CMS, and government. CMS interoperability with primary CMS used by NGOs
Existence of a Regulatory Body and Regulatory System
 
Yes
Sub-decree 119 2015
Gatekeeping Mechanism/Policy
 
Mostly
Sub Decree 34, 119
Means of Tracking Progress with Reforms
 
Mostly
UNICEF Quarterly Brief 5 2019
Moratorium on Admission into Institutions for Children Under 3
 
Yes
MoSVY Action Plan for Improving Child Care 2016-2018
Moratorium on New Institutions
 
No Data
NO SOURCE GIVEN
National Action Plan to Guide Reforms
 
Yes
MoSVY Action Plan for Improving Child Care 2016-2018
National Standards of Care
 
Yes
Prakas on the Minimum Standards for Residential Care of Children 2008 and Prakas on the Minimum Standards for Alternative Care in the Community 2008
Prevention of Separation Services Available
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Data Source: Cambodia Country Care Profile 2020
Support for Careleavers (in Legislation and in Practice)
 
Partly
Sub Decree 90, 116
i
Current provision is for a 1 time payment for young people exiting from state institutions, however this is under review.
1,393
children
Number of Children Reintegrated Out of Institutional Care
UNICEF Quarterly Brief 5, 2019

social_work_force

Social Service Workforce

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Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
64.4
Workers
Social Service Workforce In the East Asia and Pacific Region Multi Country Review 2019 UNCIEF/GSSWA
No. of government social service workers with child protection responsibilities (per 100,000 children)
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
No
Social Service Workforce In the East Asia and Pacific Region Multi Country Review 2019 UNCIEF/GSSWA
i
Social Work Quality Assurance framework is under development
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
Yes
Social Service Workforce In the East Asia and Pacific Region Multi Country Review 2019 UNCIEF/GSSWA

key_stakeholders

Key Stakeholders

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Country
Government
Civil Society Organisations
Effective

Other Relevant Reforms

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Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Child Protection
i
Child Protection and Care reforms are integrated in Cambodia
Cambodia Country Care Profile 2020
Decentralisation
i
Relates to the transfers of child protection and social welfare service delivery from the MoSVY to the subnational level under the District Administration Structure
Cambodia Country Care Profile 2020
Social Protection
i
Increasing investment in social assistance and better targeting of vulnerable children through the Cash Transfer Program
Social Protection System Review of Cambodia 2017 OCED Development Pathways 2017

drivers_of_institutionalisation

Drivers of Institutionaliziation

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Country
Push Factors
Pull Factors
Effective

key_research_and_information

Key Data Sources

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Country
Effective

Acknowledgements

Data for this country care snapshot was contributed by partners at Family Care First and UNICEF Cambodia.

Displaying 1 - 10 of 248

List of Organisations

Esperanza Lee - Harvard Political Review,

“They would always say they were coming back, but they never came back.” These are the words of Sinet Chan in her letter to the Australian government. As a child, Chan spent years in a Cambodian orphanage after losing both of her parents to HIV. Describing her experiences during her formative years there, Chan recounted being forced to entertain the constant stream of visitors from abroad by singing songs and playing games with them in order to encourage donations to the orphanage. “The volunteers were nice people, trying to help us,” Chan wrote, “But now I realise it was a form of exploitation, using us to generate funding.”

Sen David - Khmer Times ,

Cambodian Minister of Social Affairs Vong Sauth has called on all relevant authorities to resolve children’s protection issues and implement the National Strategy following the launch of the National Policy on Child Protection System 2019-2029 in September.

Khmer Times,

Vaccination of boys and girls aged six to 12 has surpassed initial estimates of 1,897,382 to be vaccinated (based on 2019 census) with more than 1,907,695 having received their first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

Tin Sokhavuth - Khmer Times ,

The Ministry of Social Affairs has reiterated its commitment to meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of eliminating violence against children globally by 2030.

Khmer Times,

New analysis indicates lost contribution to economies due to mental disorders among young people is nearly $390 billion a year worldwide, stressed a UNICEF’s news release.

Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSVY) - Kingdom of Cambodia,

The Goal of the Prakas is to ensure the best interests of the child and protect the basic rights of the child separated from his/her biological parents and receiving kinship or foster care, so that they are safe and thriving in a warm, loving and happy family environment.

Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSVY) - Kingdom of Cambodia,

This Prakas was drafted in accordance with Cambodia’s policies, standards and regulations to enable the implementation of kinship care and foster care. The Goal of the Prakas is to ensure the best interests of the child and protect the basic rights of the child separated from his/her biological parents and receiving kinship or foster care, so that they are safe and thriving in a warm, loving and happy family environment.

United Nations Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty in Cambodia,

This is a recording of the National Launch of the UN Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty in Cambodia, conducted on 22 April 2021.

Amanda Miller & Harriot Beazley - Children's Geographies,

This paper examines the lived experiences of children who interacted with tourists in a performance-based orphanage in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Rebecca Nhep, Better Care Network; Dr Kate van Doore, Law Futures Centre & Griffith Law School,

This study explores the effect of COVID-19 on a small number of privately run and funded residential care institutions by conducting a qualitative research study comprising 21 semi-structured interviews across seven focus countries.