The aim of this module from the book Rights-based Integrated Child Protection Service Delivery Systems is to learn about children in specific situations of emergency and the need for Integrated Child Protection Centres to provide rights-based services for them at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. It first examines the concepts and theories of internally displaced children persons or groups who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised States border. It focuses on the need for rights-based reintegration services for these children. It then examines the concepts and theories of stateless children who are not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law. The module focuses on the need for rights-based services including ensuring nationality for these children. It finally examines the concepts and theories of child refugees who, owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of its nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. The module focuses on the need for rights-based services including emergency care and family reunification/alternative care for these children.