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Nepal

Demographic Data

32.8
Gini Coefficiency
World Bank, 2010
30.38 million
Total Population
Central Bureau of Statistics, Population Projection 2021
42%
Percent Population Under 18
 
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
Lower Middle Income Country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank, 2019
0.579
Medium Human Development
Human Development Index
UNDP Human Development Report, 2019
i
2.1- Nepal’s HDI value and rank. Nepal’s HDI value for 2018 is 0.579 -which put the country in the medium human development category - positioning it at 147 out of 189 countries and territories. The rank is shared with Kenya.
25.2%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
Asian Development Bank, 2010
4.2
People
Median Household Size
DHS, 2016

Children's Living Arrangement

Children's Living Arrangements

Add New Data Data and Resources
%
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
58%
Living with Both Parents
 
Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
33.2%
Living with Mother Only
 
Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
2.2%
Living with Father Only
 
Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
7%
Living with Neither Parent
 
Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
3.7%
Living in Kinship Care with One Parent Dead
 
Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
0.1%
Living in Kinship Care with Both Parents Dead
 
Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
0.18%
Living with One or Both Step Parents
 
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
i
According to the National Population and Housing Census of 2011, 23,193 children in Nepal live with a step parent. This data cover only under-16 population. It is the total of those living with father & step mother (18,737) and mother & step father (4,456).
%
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Children Living without Biological Parent

Children Living Without Biological Parents

Add New Data Data and Resources
1.2%
Living in a Non-Relative Household
 
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
0.37%
Living in Kinship Care
 
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
- - %
With One Parent Dead
 
NO DATA AVAILABLE
- - %
With Both Parents Dead
 
NO DATA AVAILABLE
- - %
Living in Foster Care
 
NO DATA AVAILABLE
i
The system of foster care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
- - %
Living in foster care
 
NO DATA AVAILABLE
i
The system of foster care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.

Children at Risk of Separation

Children at Risk of Separation

Add New Data Data and Resources
Children with Disabilities
92012
Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
i
Children (0-14) who have any type of disabilities.
Children affected by HIV
1193
Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
i
1,193 children from infants to 14 years of age estimated to be infected from HIV/AIDS in year 2016/17.
Street Connected Children
1011
Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
i
Number of children rescued by Nepal Government and rehabilitated in organizations.
81.7%
Children experiencing violence
 
Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2014
i
It is the percentage of children aged 1–14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment.
Children in conflict with the law
1635
children
Annual Report of the Office of the Attorney General 2018/19
i
In 2019, there were a total of 821 children in child correction homes.
Children in Informal Kinship Care
47477
Children
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
i
It is the total number of children under 16 living with relatives.

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

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Settings
Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Settings
Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Formal Family-Based Care
0 Settings
0 Children
i
The system of formal family based care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Foster Care
0 Settings
0 Children
i
The system of formal family based care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Kinship Care
0 Settings
0 Children
i
The system of formal family based care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Children reintegrated into families
0 Settings
495 Children
i
309 were found in abandoned or unaccompanied state and reunified with family; 186 were withdrawn from institutional care and reunified with family.
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
Larger Institutions
533 Settings
15045 Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
Transit Centres/ Shelters
0 Settings
6 Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
Rehabilitation Centers
17 Settings
237 Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
Martyrs Foundations
5 Settings
1523 Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
Faith based institutions
164 Settings
8521 Children
State of Children in Nepal, 2017

Adoption

NO DATA AVAIABLE
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
521
children
Domestic Adoption
Supreme Court Annual Reports, 2009-2019
i
Prior to 2015, the data on domestic adoption were maintained by the Land Revenue Offices where the deeds of adoption were registered.
142
children
Inter-country Adoption
Inter-Country Adoption Management Board, 2009-2019
i
Since 17 August 2018, inter-country adoptions are not being processed since a new legal regime under the National Civil Code, 2017 came into effect and the detailed procedures under the new legal regime are yet to be developed.
NO DATA AVAIABLE
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Key Reform Indicators/Progress Markers

Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Social Welfare Spending
NO SOURCE GIVEN
$ 1.50 million
Child Protection Spending
UNICEF, 2018
i
USD 1.5 million in 2017/18, 0.01% of Total National Budget. An analysis carried out by UNICEF in 2016/17 and 2017/18 suggests that the direct child protection spending is 0.01% of the total national budget. The total spending for child protection was calculated as approximately USD 1 million in 2016/17 and USD 1.5 million in 2017/18. The analysis took into consideration the budget for child welfare services and targeted programs on child protection of four agencies: Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens, Department of Women and Children, Central Child Welfare Board and Juvenile Justice Coordination Committee. Such analysis has not been possible in the recent years following the establishment of federal governance where 753 local governments, seven provinces and the federation allocate budgets for different services, including child protection.
Alternative Care Policy in line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Limited
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act provides for different forms and priorities of alternative care and the criteria/eligibility for alternative care. Further procedures and guidelines under the new law are yet to be enacted. A guidelines on alternative care was drafted in 2015 based on the previous legal and administrative regime.
Centralised authority on adoption
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Since 17 August 2018, a new legal regime under the National Civil Code, 2017 came into effect. The new legal regime discontinued the former Inter-Country Adoption Management Development Board. Detailed procedures under the new legal regime are yet to be developed. The Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens is currently the de-facto central authority. However, in the absence of detailed procedures, inter-country adoption is currently on hold.
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion/Reforms
 
Mostly
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act provides that children residing in institutional care should be reintegrated with families as per their best interest.
Comprehensive child protection law
 
Partly
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act Relating to Children, 2018 provides several child protection measures. However, the matters relating to custody of children, parental responsibilities and authority, guardianship, and adoption continue to be regulated by the National Civil Code, 2017 which is disconnected with the approaches and mechanisms provided in the 2018 Act (e.g. Child Welfare Authorities) and do not uphold the best-interest principle.
Continuum of alternative care services available
 
Limited
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The continuum of care is fragmented. The Act Relating to Children, 2018 defines 'children in need of special protection' and makes provisions for services to them. However, in the absence of detailed procedures and authorities to provide services, such provisions are yet to be implemented.
Data System
 
Limited
State of Children in Nepal, 2019
i
The Report produced annually by National Child Rights Council (former Central Child Welfare Board) provides limited data of children in institutional care. There is no data of children in other forms of care.
Existence of a regulatory body and regulatory system
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
The Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens is currently the de-facto regulatory body.
Gatekeeping mechanism/policy
 
Limited
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act provides for eligibility to alternative care and different forms of alternative care to implement the 'necessity' and 'suitability' principles. However, the detailed procedures to implement these provisions and authorities to make placement decisions are yet to be defined.
Means of tracking progress with reforms
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Currently there is no such means to track progress. The forthcoming planning instrument on children is likely to include some indicators on this aspect.
Moratorium on admission into institutions for children under 3
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on new institutions
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Following the establishment of federal structures, the governments are provincial and local levels are also inclined to establish institutional care facilities.
National Action Plan
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Currently there is no such plan. The government is at the very initial stage of a new planning instrument for children which is likely to address care reforms.
National Standards of Care
 
Partly
Standards for Operation and Management of Residential Child Care Homes 2069 (2012)
i
The standards apply for institutional care facilities. There are no such standards for other forms of care.
Prevention of Separation Services available
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Limited efforts on family preservation are being implemented through different national programs, such as 'guardianship for education', 'child grants', and some local programs being implemented by local governments. Non-governmental organizations are also providing some services in their respective working areas.
Support for careleavers (in legislation and in practice)
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Social Work Force

Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
291
Workers
Central Child Welfare Board, 2017; Updated Analysis by UNICEF Nepal, 2020 (not published)
No. of government social service workers with child protection responsibilities (per 100,000 children)
i
A study commissioned by Central Child Welfare Board in 2017 provides that there were a total of 670 government social service workers with child protection responsibilities. An updated exercise by UNICEF Nepal in 2020 (not published) suggests that there are a total of 37,080 social service workers with child protection responsibilities at different levels of governance. However, 84 percent (i.e. 31,294) of them have other full time responsibilities.
--
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
No. of non-government social service workers with responsibility for child protection per 100,000 children
i
There are a total of 1380 non-profit organizations affiliated with the Social Welfare Council working in the 'child welfare' sector.
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
Partly
National Child Rights Council (former Central Child Welfare Board)
i
A study was commissioned by Central Child Welfare Board in 2017 which mapped the existing academic programs on social services along with the estimation of total graduates, professional associations of social welfare workers, and the number of government social service workforce.
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
Limited
Central Child Justice Committee
i
A total of 77 child psychologists and 77 social service providers have been listed for the purpose of justice proceedings involving children in conflict with law.

Key Stakeholders

Country
Government
Civil Society Organisations
Effective

Other Relevant Reforms

Other Relevant Reforms

Add New Data Data and Resources
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Child Protection
i
Nepal government now has revised Act Relating to Children 2018, which has prioritised families and family based alternative care; Ministry and NCRC is working on rolling out the implementation guideline. Different forms of alternative care is mentioned in the Act; Institutional care is allowed as interim care or alternative care measure, Children in institutional care to are to be reintegrated with family (as per their best interest); Irregular placement in institution contrary to the provisions of the Act is criminalized. The State of Child Care Home Nepal 2015 report finds out that there are lots of institutional care providers that are yet to meet the minimum standard – facilities to the children, financial transparency, child-friendly environment and safeguarding children from exploitation and/or abuse. In course of monitoring, some facilities were found to be operating in very coor conditions which resulted in decisions to withdraw the children from such facilities. A number of instruments are being developed by the government which will contribute towards care reform and strengthening alternative care: (i) Directives/Procedures on Alternative Care; (ii) Directives on Rescue and Family Reintegration; (iii) Procedures on Protection and Assistance to Children without Parents; (iv) Procedures on Operation, Management and Provisions of Interim Care; and (v) Case Management Guidelines and (vi) Procedural Guidance on Rescue, Protection and Management of Children in Labour Situations.
State of Child Care Home Nepal 2015, A report by CCWB; Child Protection Cluster Meeting led by Unicef and chaired by NCRC
Decentralisation
i
In the federal structure, the local governments are responsible for key service delivery, such as health, education, social security, etc. This would also include measures to support families and prevent unnecessary separation of children from families. In addition, local governments are also in a position to implement the provision of mandatory reporting of violence/abuse against children particularly by health and education service providers as required under the Act Relating to Children, 2018. This will also allow the detection of neglect and other forms of violence by caregivers in different settings.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Social Protection
i
Child grants schemes target children under the age of 5 in Far-Western districts from where the highest number of children are institutionalized. Likewise, the grants also cover under-5 dalit children across the country who would also be at risk of separation. Child grant was first introduced in 2009 targeting children under the age of 5 in five districts (Jumla, Humla, Dolpa, Kalikot and Mugu) and dalit children under the age of 5 across the country. The Government expanded the grant in three additional districts (Achham, Bajhang and Routahat) in 2017 covering a total of eight districts.
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Key Research Sources

Country
Effective

Drivers of Institutionalisation

Drivers of Institutionaliziation

Add New Data Data and Resources
Country
Push Factors
Pull Factors
Effective

Displaying 1 - 10 of 109

List of Organisations

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action,

In this podcast episode, Pramila Manandhar, media officer for CWIN in Nepal, shares her experiences in supporting children living and working on the street during lockdown.

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action,

In this podcast episode, Sumnima Tuladhar, a founding member and executive director of CWIN child helpline in Nepal, discusses how calls to the helpline changed when the COVID-19 pandemic reached Nepal. They discuss the processes drawn up to allow the helpline team to continue supporting children in dangerous situations.

Better Care Network and ACC International Relief,

This launch webinar provided an introduction to the Transitioning Models of Care Assessment Tool, an assessment framework that assists practitioners to identify and analyze key starting point dynamics and determine the implications for strategy in supporting organisations to transition from an institutional to non-institutional model of care.

Lopa Bhattacharjee, Helen J. Veitch - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This article explores care leavers’ views and recommendations for practitioners and policymakers on the transition from leaving care to living independently in the community. The article outlines how children and young people affected by child sexual exploitation experience community reintegration, and their views on the key issues reintegration services need to consider.

Save the Children,

Nepal's Minister of Women, Children, and Senior Citizen, Parbat Gurung, "interacted with children during Save the Children and Community Information Network’s (CIN) ‘Ministers with Children’ - a campaign designed to elevate the voices of children in COVID-19 discussions, with the aim to make elected representatives and policy-makers more accountable towards the need and challenges of children in Nepal," according to this press release from Save the Children.

Amanda Adamcheck, et al - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This article examines the extent to which two key child rights principles enshrined in the Convention have been incorporated into the domestic law of seven South Asian countries: (a) the obligation to undertake active measures to prevent the unnecessary separation of children from their families and (b) the placing of a child in alternative care as a measure of last resort.

Kate van Doore - ABC News,

In this opinion piece for ABC News, Kate van Doore describes her experience of establishing an orphanage in Nepal in 2006, to later learn that the children in the home's care had living relatives and that many had been recruited to the orphanage.

Foreign Correspondent - ABC,

This episode of Foreign Correspondent from ABC News in Australia exposes the "ugly truth" that donations and volunteer efforts of Westerners, including Australians, often drive an exploitative orphanage industry in developing countries (in this case, Nepal).

Sally Sara - Foreign Correspondent, ABC News,

This article accompanies an episode of Foreign Correspondent from ABC News Australia entitled 'Paper Orphans.' It tells the story of Devi, a 10-year-old girl in Nepal "forced to pose as an orphan" who is being reunited with her family.

Kanhaiya Sapkota - The Geographical Journal of Nepal,

This paper attempts to determine socio-economic structure of female labor migrants from Tanahun District of Gandaki Province, Nepal. Similarly, it also attempts to analyze the causes of female migration, process and dynamics of foreign labor migration and its impact on the left behind family specially children and elder citizens at home.