Nepal

This country page features an interactive, icon-based data dashboard providing a national-level overview of the status of children’s care and care reform efforts (a “Country Care Snapshot”), along with a list of resources and organizations in the country.

Docs Orgs Countries Link

List of Organisations

demographic_data

Demographic Data

Add New Data Explore Data
30.38 million
Total Population
Central Bureau of Statistics, Population Projection 2021
12.76 million
People
Total Population Under 18
Estimate
42%
Population Under 18
 
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
4.2
People
Mean Household Size
DHS, 2016
31.3%
Prevalence of Female-Headed Households
 
DHS 2016
Lower Middle Income Country
World Bank GNI Status
World Bank, 2019
25.2%
Living Below Poverty Line
 
Asian Development Bank, 2010
32.8
GINI Coefficient
World Bank, 2010
0.579
Human Development Index
UNDP Human Development Report, 2019
i
2.1- Nepal’s HDI value and rank. Nepal’s HDI value for 2018 is 0.579 -which put the country in the medium human development category - positioning it at 147 out of 189 countries and territories. The rank is shared with Kenya.

childrens_living_arrangement

Children's Living Arrangements

Add New Data Explore Data
%
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
66.9%
Living with Both Parents
 
MICS 2019
27.6%
Living with One Parent
 
MICS 2019
5.3%
Living with Neither Parent
 
MICS 2019
%
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN

children_living_without_bio

Children Living Without Biological Parents

Add New Data Explore Data
88.5%
Living in Kinship Care
 
MICS 2019
1.5%
Living With a Non-Relative
 
MICS 2019
81%
Both Parents Alive
 
MICS 2019
13%
One Parent Dead
 
MICS 2019
6%
Both Parents Dead
 
MICS 2019

Children at Risk of Separation

Add New Data Explore Data
Children with Disabilities
92,012
Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
i
Children (0-14) who have any type of disabilities.
Children Affected by HIV
1,193
Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
i
1,193 children from infants to 14 years of age estimated to be infected from HIV/AIDS in year 2016/17.
Street Connected Children
1,011
Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
i
Number of children rescued by Nepal Government and rehabilitated in organizations.
81.7%
Children Experiencing Violence
 
Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2014
i
It is the percentage of children aged 1–14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment.
Children in Conflict with the Law
1,635
children
Annual Report of the Office of the Attorney General 2018/19
i
In 2019, there were a total of 821 children in child correction homes.
Children in Informal Kinship Care
47,477
Children
National Population and Housing Census, 2011
i
It is the total number of children under 16 living with relatives.

Formal Alternative Care Arrangements

Add New Data Explore Data
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
0 Families/Parents
0 Children
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Total Family-Based Alternative Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
i
The system of formal family based care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Foster Care
- - Foster Families/Foster Parents
- - Children
i
The system of formal family based care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Formal Kinship Care
- - Families/Parents
- - Children
i
The system of formal family based care, though provided in the Act Relating to Children, 2018, is yet to be implemented.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Children reintegrated into families
- - Families/Parents
495 Children
i
309 were found in abandoned or unaccompanied state and reunified with family; 186 were withdrawn from institutional care and reunified with family.
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
Total Residential Care
719 Settings
25,332 Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
Larger Institutions
533 Settings
15,045 Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
Transit Centres/ Shelters
- - Settings
6 Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
Rehabilitation Centers
17 Settings
237 Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
Martyrs Foundations
5 Settings
1,523 Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)
Faith based institutions
164 Settings
8,521 Children
State of Children in Nepal 2019 (Government of Nepal Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens National Child Rights Council, 2019)

adoption

NO DATA AVAIABLE
Country
NO SOURCE GIVEN
521
children
Domestic Adoption
Data Source: Supreme Court Annual Reports; Date Range: 2009-2019
i
Prior to 2015, the data on domestic adoption were maintained by the Land Revenue Offices where the deeds of adoption were registered.
142
children
Inter-country Adoption
Data Source: Inter-Country Adoption Management Board; Date Range: 2009-2019
i
Since 17 August 2018, inter-country adoptions are not being processed since a new legal regime under the National Civil Code, 2017 came into effect and the detailed procedures under the new legal regime are yet to be developed.
NO DATA AVAIABLE
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN

Parental Survivorship

Add New Data Explore Data
96.1%
Children with Both Parents Alive
 
DHS 2016
3.7%
Children with One Parent Alive
 
DHS 2016
0.1%
Children with Both Parents Dead
 
DHS 2016

Progress Indicators

Add New Data Explore Data
Country
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
 
NO SOURCE GIVEN
NO DATA AVAILABLE
Social Welfare Spending
NO SOURCE GIVEN
$ 1.50 million
Child Protection Spending
UNICEF, 2018
i
USD 1.5 million in 2017/18, 0.01% of Total National Budget. An analysis carried out by UNICEF in 2016/17 and 2017/18 suggests that the direct child protection spending is 0.01% of the total national budget. The total spending for child protection was calculated as approximately USD 1 million in 2016/17 and USD 1.5 million in 2017/18. The analysis took into consideration the budget for child welfare services and targeted programs on child protection of four agencies: Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens, Department of Women and Children, Central Child Welfare Board and Juvenile Justice Coordination Committee. Such analysis has not been possible in the recent years following the establishment of federal governance where 753 local governments, seven provinces and the federation allocate budgets for different services, including child protection.
Alternative Care Policy in Line with the 2009 Guidelines
 
Limited
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act provides for different forms and priorities of alternative care and the criteria/eligibility for alternative care. Further procedures and guidelines under the new law are yet to be enacted. A guidelines on alternative care was drafted in 2015 based on the previous legal and administrative regime.
Centralised Authority on Adoption
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Since 17 August 2018, a new legal regime under the National Civil Code, 2017 came into effect. The new legal regime discontinued the former Inter-Country Adoption Management Development Board. Detailed procedures under the new legal regime are yet to be developed. The Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens is currently the de-facto central authority. However, in the absence of detailed procedures, inter-country adoption is currently on hold.
Commitment to Deinstitutionalistion
 
Mostly
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act provides that children residing in institutional care should be reintegrated with families as per their best interest.
Comprehensive Child Protection Law
 
Partly
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act Relating to Children, 2018 provides several child protection measures. However, the matters relating to custody of children, parental responsibilities and authority, guardianship, and adoption continue to be regulated by the National Civil Code, 2017 which is disconnected with the approaches and mechanisms provided in the 2018 Act (e.g. Child Welfare Authorities) and do not uphold the best-interest principle.
Continuum of Alternative Care Services Available
 
Limited
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The continuum of care is fragmented. The Act Relating to Children, 2018 defines 'children in need of special protection' and makes provisions for services to them. However, in the absence of detailed procedures and authorities to provide services, such provisions are yet to be implemented.
Data System
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
The State of Children in Nepal 2019 Report produced annually by National Child Rights Council (former Central Child Welfare Board) provides limited data of children in institutional care. There is no data of children in other forms of care.
Existence of a Regulatory Body and Regulatory System
 
Limited
Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens
i
The Ministry of Women, Children and Senior Citizens is currently the de-facto regulatory body.
Gatekeeping Mechanism/Policy
 
Limited
Act Relating to Children, 2018
i
The Act provides for eligibility to alternative care and different forms of alternative care to implement the 'necessity' and 'suitability' principles. However, the detailed procedures to implement these provisions and authorities to make placement decisions are yet to be defined.
Means of Tracking Progress with Reforms
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Currently there is no such means to track progress. The forthcoming planning instrument on children is likely to include some indicators on this aspect.
Moratorium on Admission into Institutions for Children Under 3
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Moratorium on New Institutions
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Following the establishment of federal structures, the governments are provincial and local levels are also inclined to establish institutional care facilities.
National Action Plan to Guide Reforms
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Currently there is no such plan. The government is at the very initial stage of a new planning instrument for children which is likely to address care reforms.
National Standards of Care
 
Partly
Standards for Operation and Management of Residential Child Care Homes 2069 (2012)
i
The standards apply for institutional care facilities. There are no such standards for other forms of care.
Prevention of Separation Services Available
 
Limited
NO SOURCE GIVEN
i
Limited efforts on family preservation are being implemented through different national programs, such as 'guardianship for education', 'child grants', and some local programs being implemented by local governments. Non-governmental organizations are also providing some services in their respective working areas.
Support for Careleavers (in Legislation and in Practice)
 
No
NO SOURCE GIVEN

social_work_force

Social Service Workforce

Add New Data Explore Data
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Country
291
Workers
Estimate
No. of government social service workers with child protection responsibilities (per 100,000 children)
i
A study commissioned by Central Child Welfare Board in 2017 provides that there were a total of 670 government social service workers with child protection responsibilities. An updated exercise by UNICEF Nepal in 2020 (not published) suggests that there are a total of 37,080 social service workers with child protection responsibilities at different levels of governance. However, 84 percent (i.e. 31,294) of them have other full time responsibilities.
10.8
Workers
Estimate
No. of non-government social service workers with responsibility for child protection per 100,000 children
i
There are a total of 1380 non-profit organizations affiliated with the Social Welfare Council working in the 'child welfare' sector.
Workers
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Effective
A national workforce assessment and analysis carried out within the past four years
 
Partly
National Child Rights Council (former Central Child Welfare Board)
i
A study was commissioned by Central Child Welfare Board in 2017 which mapped the existing academic programs on social services along with the estimation of total graduates, professional associations of social welfare workers, and the number of government social service workforce.
A system of licensing/registration of social service professionals
 
Limited
Central Child Justice Committee
i
A total of 77 child psychologists and 77 social service providers have been listed for the purpose of justice proceedings involving children in conflict with law.

key_stakeholders

Key Stakeholders

Add New Data
Country
Government
Civil Society Organisations
Effective

Other Relevant Reforms

Add New Data
Effective
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Child Protection
i
Nepal government now has revised Act Relating to Children 2018, which has prioritised families and family based alternative care; Ministry and NCRC is working on rolling out the implementation guideline. Different forms of alternative care is mentioned in the Act; Institutional care is allowed as interim care or alternative care measure, Children in institutional care to are to be reintegrated with family (as per their best interest); Irregular placement in institution contrary to the provisions of the Act is criminalized. The State of Child Care Home Nepal 2015 report finds out that there are lots of institutional care providers that are yet to meet the minimum standard – facilities to the children, financial transparency, child-friendly environment and safeguarding children from exploitation and/or abuse. In course of monitoring, some facilities were found to be operating in very coor conditions which resulted in decisions to withdraw the children from such facilities. A number of instruments are being developed by the government which will contribute towards care reform and strengthening alternative care: (i) Directives/Procedures on Alternative Care; (ii) Directives on Rescue and Family Reintegration; (iii) Procedures on Protection and Assistance to Children without Parents; (iv) Procedures on Operation, Management and Provisions of Interim Care; and (v) Case Management Guidelines and (vi) Procedural Guidance on Rescue, Protection and Management of Children in Labour Situations.
State of Child Care Home Nepal 2015, a report by CCWB
Decentralisation
i
In the federal structure, the local governments are responsible for key service delivery, such as health, education, social security, etc. This would also include measures to support families and prevent unnecessary separation of children from families. In addition, local governments are also in a position to implement the provision of mandatory reporting of violence/abuse against children particularly by health and education service providers as required under the Act Relating to Children, 2018. This will also allow the detection of neglect and other forms of violence by caregivers in different settings.
NO SOURCE GIVEN
Social Protection
i
Child grants schemes target children under the age of 5 in Far-Western districts from where the highest number of children are institutionalized. Likewise, the grants also cover under-5 dalit children across the country who would also be at risk of separation. Child grant was first introduced in 2009 targeting children under the age of 5 in five districts (Jumla, Humla, Dolpa, Kalikot and Mugu) and dalit children under the age of 5 across the country. The Government expanded the grant in three additional districts (Achham, Bajhang and Routahat) in 2017 covering a total of eight districts.
NO SOURCE GIVEN

drivers_of_institutionalisation

Drivers of Institutionaliziation

Add New Data
Country
Push Factors
Pull Factors
Effective

key_research_and_information

Key Data Sources

Add New Data
Country
Effective

Acknowledgements

Data for this country care snapshot was contributed by Forget Me Not and UNICEF Nepal.

Displaying 1 - 10 of 121

List of Organisations

Human Rights Watch,

This report examines the rise in child labor and poverty during the Covid-19 pandemic in three countries: Ghana, Nepal, and Uganda, the impact on children’s rights, and government responses.

Hope and Homes for Children,

Hope and Homes for Children is looking for an independent evaluator or team with a strong record in conducting evaluations as well as direct programme interventions to conduct an evaluation of a pilot project initiated to support catalytic change in care reform in Nepal.

WHO South-East Asia Regional Office in collaboration with UNICEF,

The WHO South-East Asia Regional Office in collaboration with UNICEF organized a 3-day virtual meeting from 27 to 29 April, 2021.

Rebecca Nhep, Better Care Network; Dr Kate van Doore, Law Futures Centre & Griffith Law School,

This study explores the effect of COVID-19 on a small number of privately run and funded residential care institutions by conducting a qualitative research study comprising 21 semi-structured interviews across seven focus countries.

Madhu Kharel, Shibanuma Akira, Junko Kiriya, Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Masamine Jimba - PLoS ONE,

A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 626 adolescents in two districts of Western Nepal to examine the association between parental international migration and the psychological well-being of left-behind adolescents.

Sushil Sharma, Bhimsen Devkota & Devaraj Acharya - Global Journal of Health Science,

This study explores the physical and emotional effects of parental migration on left-behind children in Nepal.

Martin Punaks and Samjyor Lama - Institutionalised Children Explorations and Beyond,

This article compares and contrasts two humanitarian emergencies and their impact on Nepal: these are the Nepal earthquake in 2015 and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

Esther Bott - Annals of Tourism Research,

This article draws on original empirical data to explore the narratives of young Nepali adults who lived in Kathmandu orphanages as children. Through these narratives, the article explores the diverse complexities of the residents' experiences of volunteer tourism and NGO ‘rescue’, and the shortcomings of recent ‘neoabolitionist’ frameworks.

Family for Every Child,

These Practitioner Guidance Papers share the approaches of five Family for Every Child members in adapting existing helplines or setting up new ones during the COVID-19 pandemic

World Vision,

This consultation explores children and young people’s views and experiences related to COVID-19 and its secondary impacts.